Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy

, Volume 18, Issue 4, pp 1031–1042 | Cite as

Parametric study of co-gasification of ternary blends of rice straw, polyethylene and polyvinylchloride

  • Humair Ahmed Baloch
  • Tianhua Yang
  • Rundong Li
  • Sabzoi Nizamuddin
  • Xingping Kai
  • Abdul Waheed Bhutto
Original Paper


Parametric study of co-gasification of rice straw (RS), high-density polyethylene (PE) and Polyvinylchloride (PVC) was carried out to investigate the effect of temperature, flow rate of steam, typical plastics and their blends on the quality and volume of synthetic gas. The additions of plastic enhance H2 content in the synthetic gas. The study found that increase in temperature increases the yield of synthetic gas, H2 and CO content and lower heating value (LHV) of synthetic gas. The steam to biomass ratio seems to have a very small effect on gas composition. Likewise the increase in PE content in the feed blend increases the hydrogen content and gas yield. Similar results were obtained by increasing PVC content. Co-gasification experiments of ternary blends of RS, PE and PVC were also conducted. The ternary blends of 20 % RS, 40 % PE, 40 % PVC produced synthetic gas with higher H2 content, higher synthetic gas production rate and higher LHV of synthetic gas. This work confirms that synergistic interactive effect takes place during the co-gasification of ternary blends of PE, PVC and RS due to volatile-char interaction and mineral catalytic effects. This work also suggests that carefully designed co-gasification unit can handle waste with varying composition of biomass and plastic to produce improved quantity as well as quality of synthetic gas.


Biomass Plastic Waste Co-gasification Alternative fuels Clean technology 



The authors acknowledge a research grant support by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51176130).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

We have no conflict of interest.


  1. Aguado J, Serrano DP, Clark JH (1999) Gasification and partial oxidation. In: Aguado J, Serrano DP, Clark JH (eds) Feedstock Recycling of Plastic Wastes. The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, pp 59–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmed II, Nipattummakul N, Gupta AK (2011) Characteristics of syngas from co-gasification of polyethylene and woodchips. Appl Energy 88(1):165–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anand S, Gupta A, Tyagi S (2014) Critical analysis of a biogas powered absorption system for climate change mitigation. Clean Technol Environ Policy 16(3):569–578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aznar MP, Caballero MA, Sancho JA, Francés E (2006) Plastic waste elimination by co-gasification with coal and biomass in fluidized bed with air in pilot plant. Fuel Process Technol 87(5):409–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bhutto AW, Bazmi AA, Zahedi G (2013) Underground coal gasification: from fundamentals to applications. Prog Energy Combust Sci 39(1):189–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bläsing M, Weigand M, Fasenacht J, Müller M (2015) Effect of temperature and oxygen content on the release of organic and inorganic species during high temperature thermochemical conversion of PVC-condensate. Fuel Process Technol 134:85–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brau J-F, Morandin M, Berntsson T (2013) Hydrogen for oil refining via biomass indirect steam gasification: energy and environmental targets. Clean Technol Environ Policy 15(3):501–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Conesa JA, Font R, Marcilla A (1997) Comparison between the pyrolysis of two types of polyethylenes in a fluidized bed reactor. Energy Fuels 11(1):126–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Demirbaş A (2001) Yields of hydrogen-rich gaseous products via pyrolysis from selected biomass samples. Fuel 80(13):1885–1891CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Devi L, Ptasinski KJ, Janssen FJJG (2003) A review of the primary measures for tar elimination in biomass gasification processes. Biomass Bioenergy 24(2):125–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Erkiaga A, Lopez G, Amutio M, Bilbao J, Olazar M (2013) Syngas from steam gasification of polyethylene in a conical spouted bed reactor. Fuel 109:461–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Franco C, Pinto F, Gulyurtlu I, Cabrita I (2003) The study of reactions influencing the biomass steam gasification process. Fuel 82(7):835–842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gai C, Dong Y (2012) Experimental study on non-woody biomass gasification in a downdraft gasifier. Int J Hydrogen Energy 37(6):4935–4944CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gonçalves CK, Tenório JAS, Levendis YA, Carlson JB (2008) Emissions from the premixed combustion of gasified polyethylene. Energy Fuels 22(1):372–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Howaniec N, Smoliński A, Stańczyk K, Pichlak M (2011) Steam co-gasification of coal and biomass derived chars with synergy effect as an innovative way of hydrogen-rich gas production. Int J Hydrogen Energy 36(22):14455–14463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hu M, Guo D, Ma C, Luo S, Chen X, Cheng Q, Laghari M, Xiao B (2015) A novel pilot-scale production of fuel gas by allothermal biomass gasification using biomass micron fuel (BMF) as external heat source. Clean Technol Environ Policy, 1–9Google Scholar
  17. Huber GW, Iborra S, Corma A (2006) Synthesis of transportation fuels from biomass: chemistry, catalysts, and engineering. Chem Rev 106(9):4044–4098CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Igliński B, Piechota G, Buczkowski R (2014) Development of biomass in polish energy sector: an overview. Clean Technol Environ Policy 17(2):317–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kannan P, Al Shoaibi A, Srinivasakannan C (2014) Temperature effects on the yield of gaseous olefins from waste polyethylene via flash pyrolysis. Energy Fuels 28(5):3363–3366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kaufman Rechulski MD, Schneebeli J, Geiger S, Schildhauer TJ, Biollaz SMA, Ludwig C (2012) Liquid-Quench sampling system for the analysis of gas streams from biomass gasification processes. Part 1: sampling noncondensable compounds. Energy Fuels 26(12):7308–7315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kumagai S, Hasegawa I, Grause G, Kameda T, Yoshioka T (2015) Thermal decomposition of individual and mixed plastics in the presence of CaO or Ca(OH)2. J Anal Appl Pyrol 113:584–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kuo PC, Wu W, Chen WH (2014) Gasification performances of raw and torrefied biomass in a downdraft fixed bed gasifier using thermodynamic analysis. Fuel 117:1231–1241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lapuerta M, Hernández JJ, Pazo A, López J (2008) Gasification and co-gasification of biomass wastes: effect of the biomass origin and the gasifier operating conditions. Fuel Process Technol 89(9):828–837CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Li C, Suzuki K (2009) Tar property, analysis, reforming mechanism and model for biomass gasification—an overview. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 13(3):594–604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lv PM, Xiong ZH, Chang J, Wu CZ, Chen Y, Zhu JX (2004) An experimental study on biomass air–steam gasification in a fluidized bed. Bioresour Technol 95(1):95–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ma S, Lu J, Gao J (2002) Study of the Low Temperature Pyrolysis of PVC. Energy Fuels 16(2):338–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nizamuddin S, Kumar J, Subramanian N, Sahu JN, Ganesan P, Mubarak NM, Mazari SA (2015a) Synthesis and characterization of hydrochars produced by hydrothermal carbonization of oil palm shell. Can J Chem Eng 93(11):1916–1921CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Nizamuddin S, Subramanian N, Kumar J, Sahu JN, Ganesan P, Bhutto AW, Mubarak NM (2015b) Hydrothermal carbonization of oil palm shell. Korean J Chem Eng 32(9):1789–1797CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Parthasarathy P, Narayanan KS (2014) Hydrogen production from steam gasification of biomass: influence of process parameters on hydrogen yield – A review. Renew Energy 66:570–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Pinto F, Franco C, André RN, Miranda M, Gulyurtlu I, Cabrita I (2002) Co-gasification study of biomass mixed with plastic wastes. Fuel 81(3):291–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Pinto F, Franco C, André RN, Tavares C, Dias M, Gulyurtlu I, Cabrita I (2003) Effect of experimental conditions on co-gasification of coal, biomass and plastics wastes with air/steam mixtures in a fluidized bed system. Fuel 82(15–17):1967–1976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Pohořelý M, Vosecký M, Hejdová P, Punčochář M, Skoblja S, Staf M, Vošta J, Koutský B, Svoboda K (2006) Gasification of coal and PET in fluidized bed reactor. Fuel 85(17–18):2458–2468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Prasad L, Salvi B, Kumar V (2015) Thermal degradation and gasification characteristics of Tung Shells as an open top downdraft wood gasifier feedstock, Clean Technol Environ Policy, 1–8Google Scholar
  34. Puig-Arnavat M, Bruno JC, Coronas A (2010) Review and analysis of biomass gasification models. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 14(9):2841–2851CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Umeki K, Namioka T, Yoshikawa K (2012) The effect of steam on pyrolysis and char reactions behavior during rice straw gasification. Fuel Process Technol 94(1):53–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wilk V, Hofbauer H (2013) Co-gasification of plastics and biomass in a dual fluidized-bed steam gasifier: possible interactions of fuels. Energy Fuels 27(6):3261–3273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Yang T, Hu K, Li R, Sun Y, Kai X (2015) Cogasification of typical plastics and rice straw with carbon dioxide. Environ Progr Sustain Energy 34(3):789–794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Yuan G, Chen D, Yin L, Wang Z, Zhao L, Wang JY (2014) High efficiency chlorine removal from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pyrolysis with a gas–liquid fluidized bed reactor. Waste Manag 34(6):1045–1050CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Humair Ahmed Baloch
    • 1
    • 2
  • Tianhua Yang
    • 1
  • Rundong Li
    • 1
  • Sabzoi Nizamuddin
    • 2
  • Xingping Kai
    • 1
  • Abdul Waheed Bhutto
    • 2
  1. 1.Liaoning Key Laboratory of Clean Energy and School of Energy and EnvironmentShenyang Aerospace UniversityShenyangChina
  2. 2.Department of Chemical EngineeringDawood University of Engineering and TechnologyKarachiPakistan

Personalised recommendations