Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy

, Volume 16, Issue 7, pp 1235–1243 | Cite as

Graphical cogeneration analysis for site utility systems

  • Li Sun
  • Steve Doyle
  • Robin Smith
Original Paper


It is necessary to systematically evaluate site-wide power and heat generation, distribution, and utilization. A new graphical approach based on a Site Grand Composite Curve (SGCC) to targeting cogeneration in site utility systems is proposed to extend Pinch Analysis. The SGCC presents quantitative and visual process targets of heating and cooling requirements, site utility system targets for system steam generation and potential shaft power by steam expansion and condensation. Process indirect heat recovery by intermediate steam levels that can reduce fuel consumption is analyzed readily in the approach. The steam cascade in the SGCC clarifies the Total Site Pinch and site targets of utility very high pressure steam demand and site steam saving. This graphical analysis presents greater clarity for the quantitative interaction between processes and utility system targets than previous approaches. The influence of process variation and steam mains selection on cogeneration improvements is explored much clearer in this straightforward method.


Site Grand Composite Curve Site targeting Steam cascade Cogeneration 



The power conversion coefficient based on the TH model (°C−1)


Process cooling requirement (MW)


Steam generation from process heat recovery (MW)


The heat duty of inlet steam of the steam turbine (MW)


Utility VHP steam target (MW)


Site VHP steam saving due to process indirect heat recovery through steam mains (MW)


Steam turbine inlet steam temperature (°C)


Steam turbine exhaust temperature (°C)


The condensation temperature (°C)


Process heating requirement (MW)


The potential shaft power generation by steam expansion (MW)





Cooling medium


VHP, HP, MP, and LP steam mains, respectively


New steam main introduction


Higher pressure steam main adjacent to the added new steam main


Lower pressure steam main adjacent to the added new steam main



The support of EC Project EFENIS (contract ENER/FP7/296003/EFENIS) is sincerely acknowledged.


  1. Bandyopadhyay S, Varghese J, Bansal V (2010) Targeting for cogeneration potential through Total Site integration. Appl Therm Eng 30:6–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Botros BB, Brisson JG (2011) Targeting the optimum steam system for power generation with increased flexibility in the steam power island design. Energy 36(8):4625–4632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bruno JC, Fernandez F, Castells F, Grossmann IE (1998) A rigorous MINLP model for the optimal synthesis and operation of utility plants. Chem Eng Res Des 76A:246–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Crilly D, Zhelev T (2010) Further emissions and energy targeting: an application of CO2 emissions pinch analysis (CEPA) to the Irish electricity generation sector. Clean Technol Environ Policy 12:177–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cucek L, Varbanov PS, Klemes JJ, Kravanja Z (2013) Multi-objective regional total site integration. Chem Eng Trans 35:97–102. doi: 10.3303/CET1335016 Google Scholar
  6. Dhole VR, Linnhoff B (1993) Total Site targets for fuel, co-generation, emissions and cooling. Comput Chem Eng 17(Suppl):101–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fodor Z, Varbanov PS, Klemeš JJ (2010) Total site targeting accounting for individual process heat transfer characteristics. Chem Eng Trans 21:49–54Google Scholar
  8. Fodor Z, Klemeš JJ, Varbanov PS, Walmsley MRW, Atkins MJ, Walmsley TG (2012) Total site targeting with stream specific minimum temperature difference. Chem Eng Trans 29:409–414Google Scholar
  9. Ghannadzadeh A, Perry S, Smith R (2012) Cogeneration targeting for site utility systems. Appl Therm Eng 43:60–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hackl R, Andersson E, Harvey S (2011) Targeting for energy efficiency and improved energy collaboration between different companies using Total Site analysis (TSA). Energy 36(8):4609–4615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Klemeš JJ (ed) (2013) Handbook of process integration (PI): minimisation of energy and water use, waste and emissions. Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy, Cambridge. doi:  10.1533/9780857097255
  12. Klemeš JJ, Varbanov P (2013) Process intensification and integration: an assessment. Clean Technol Environ Policy 15:417–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Klemeš JJ, Dhole VR, Raissi K, Perry SJ, Puigjaner L (1997) Targeting and design methodology for reduction of fuel, power and CO2 on Total Sites. Appl Therm Eng 7:993–1003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Krishna Priya GS, Bandyopadhyay S (2013) Emission constrained power system planning: a Pinch Analysis based study of Indian electricity sector. Clean Technol Environ Policy 15(5):771–782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Linnhoff B, Townsend D W, Boland D, Hewitt G F, Thomas B E A, Guy A R, Marsland R H (1982) A user guide on process integration for the efficient use of energy. Institution of Chemical Engineers, Rugby [last updated edition 1994]Google Scholar
  16. Marechal F, Kalitventzeff B (2003) Targeting the integration of multi-period utility systems for site scale process integration. Appl Therm Eng 23:1763–1784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mavromatis SP, Kokossis AC (1998) Conceptual optimisation of utility networks for operational variations—I. Targets and level optimization. Chem Eng Sci 53(8):1585–1606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Medina-Flores JM, Picon-Nunez M (2010) Modelling the power production of single and multiple extraction steam turbines. Chem Eng Sci 65:2811–2820CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mohammad Rozali NE, Wan Alwi SR, Manan ZA, Klemes JJ, Hassan MY (2013) Optimisation of pumped hydro storage system for hybrid power system using power pinch analysis. Chem Eng Trans 35:85–90. doi: 10.3303/CET1335014 Google Scholar
  20. Mohammad H, Manesh K, Abadi SJ, Ghalami H, Amidpour M, Hamedi MH (2012) A new cogeneration targeting procedure for total site. Chem Eng Trans 29:1561–1566Google Scholar
  21. Perry S, Klemeš JJ, Bulatov I (2008) Integrating waste and renewable energy to reduce the carbon footprint of locally integrated energy sectors. Energy 33(10):1489–1497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Prashant K, Perry S (2012) Optimal selection of steam mains in total site utility systems. Chem Eng Trans 29:127–132Google Scholar
  23. Raissi K (1994) Total Site integration. Ph.D Thesis, UMIST, ManchesterGoogle Scholar
  24. Saw S, Lee L, Lim M, Foo D, Chew I, Tan R, Klemeš JJ (2011) An extended graphical targeting technique for direct reuse/recycle in concentration and property-based resource conservation networks. Clean Technol Environ Policy 13(2):347–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Smith R (2005) Chemical process design and integration. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  26. Sorin M, Hammache A (2005) A new thermodynamic model for shaftwork targeting on total sites. Appl Therm Eng 25:961–972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sun L, Doyle S, Smith R (2013) Cogeneration improvement based on steam cascade analysis. Chem Eng Trans 35:13–18. doi: 10.3303/CET1335002 Google Scholar
  28. Varbanov P, Klemeš JJ (2010) Total Sites integrating renewables with extended heat transfer and recovery. Heat Transfer Eng 31(9):733–741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Varbanov P, Fodor Z, Klemeš JJ (2012) Total Site targeting with process specific minimum temperature difference (ΔTmin). Energy 44(1):20–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wan Alwi SR, Manan ZA (2010) STEP a new graphical tool for simultaneous targeting and design of a heat exchanger network. Chem Eng J 162:106–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wan Alwi SR, Mohammad Rozali NE, Abdul-Manan Z, Klemeš JJ (2012) A process integration targeting method for hybrid power systems. Energy 44(1):6–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wan Alwi SR, Tin OS, Mohammad Rozali NE, Abdul-Manan Z, Klemeš JJ (2013) New graphical tools for process changes via load shifting for hybrid power systems based on Power Pinch Analysis. Clean Technol Environ Policy 15(3):459–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Process Integration, School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical ScienceUniversity of ManchesterManchesterUK

Personalised recommendations