The role of gastric acid inhibitors as predisposing factors for Candida esophagitis is unknown. A retrospective case-control study of esophageal candidiasis was conducted in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative patients diagnosed from January 1991 to December 1997. The diagnosis of esophageal candidiasis was always made on the basis of endoscopic and histological criteria. Fifty-one patients were diagnosed with esophageal candidiasis, 15 of whom had esophageal complaints and 48 of whom suffered from another previous chronic disease (17 had cancer). In addition, 20 patients had previously been treated with antibiotics, 13 with steroids and 14 with omeprazole. In the multivariate analysis, neoplasm (odds ratio, 5.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.94–15.56) and therapy with antibiotics (odds ratio, 11.97; 95% confidence interval, 3.82–37.45), steroids (odds ratio, 35.52; 95% confidence interval, 3.90–324.01) or omeprazole (odds ratio, 18.23; 95% confidence interval, 4.67–71.03) were all associated with esophageal candidiasis. These data suggest that Candida esophagitis tends to occur in patients with chronic diseases, most of whom have been previously treated with antibiotics, steroids or omeprazole. The findings support the hypothesis that treatment with omeprazole favors the development of esophageal candidiasis.
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Chocarro Martínez, A., Galindo Tobal, F., Ruiz-Irastorza, G. et al. Risk Factors for Esophageal Candidiasis. EJCMID 19, 96–100 (2000). https://doi.org/10.1007/s100960050437