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 The epidemiological features of 37 episodes of candidemia in HIV-infected subjects were analysed in a retrospective matched case-control study conducted over an 8-year period (1990–1997). Univariate analysis identified eight risk factors that were significantly associated with candidemia (P<0.05): i) use of central venous catheters; ii) administration of total parenteral nutrition; iii) previous antifungal therapy; iv) previous therapy with glycopeptides; v) presence of oral/esophageal candidiasis; vi) concomitant bacterial infections; vii) neutropenia; and viii) concomitant AIDS dementia complex. Stepwise logistic regression analysis revealed that the only independent risk factor for developing candidemia was the use of central venous catheters (P=0.0001). Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated pathogen, accounting for 18 (48%) episodes of candidemia, followed by Candida tropicalis (19%) and Candida glabrata (11%). The crude mortality rate was 62%. On univariate analysis concomitant opportunistic infections, presence of non-Candida albicans species of Candida and neutropenia were shown to be predictive of death. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of non-Candida albicans strains of Candida was the only significant factor associated with a worse prognosis (P=0.001). In conclusion, candidemia appears to be more common in patients with advanced HIV disease. Of the factors which influenced the onset of candidemia, use of central venous catheters seemed to be the most important one.

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Tumbarello, M., Tacconelli, E., de Gaetano Donati, K. et al. Candidemia in HIV-Infected Subjects. EJCMID 18, 478–483 (1999).

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