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Frequent detection of enterovirus D68 and rhinovirus type C in children with acute respiratory infections


This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of human rhinoviruses (HRVs) and the emergence of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) in children. A total of 322 nasopharyngeal swab samples were provided from children with an initial diagnosis of upper and lower respiratory tract infections. A total of 34 and 70 cases were positive for EV-D68 and HRV, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the clades A and B are the prevalent genotypes for EV-D68 and the HRV-positive samples belong to three types including HRV-A, HRV-B, and HRV-C. The results showed that EV-D68 and HRV-C are circulating in Iran especially in the winter.

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Data availability

All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this published article. In addition, all sequences obtained in this study have been submitted to NCBI’s GenBank sequence database and accession numbers MH250142-MH250148 and MH356731-MH356744 were assigned for partial VP1 gene sequences of EV-D68 and 5′-UTR sequences of HRV, respectively.


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This work was financially supported by Research Center of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (grant no. 31864).

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Authors and Affiliations



SHM, MZGh, MK, and FR performed bioinformatics and statistical analysis. SHM, MZGh, and FR interpreted and wrote the manuscript. FR, NM, HN, VS, TMA, SAN, and NGh performed experiments. NM contributed with patient samples. FR obtained study funding. FR and TMA supervised the study. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to Farhad Rezaei.

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The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

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This study was approved by ethical committee of Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

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Mozhgani, SH., Keshavarz, M., Mousavi, N. et al. Frequent detection of enterovirus D68 and rhinovirus type C in children with acute respiratory infections. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 40, 637–642 (2021).

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