Oral microbial biofilms: an update

  • Seyed Ali Mosaddad
  • Elahe Tahmasebi
  • Alireza Yazdanian
  • Mohammad Bagher Rezvani
  • Alexander Seifalian
  • Mohsen YazdanianEmail author
  • Hamid TebyanianEmail author


Human oral cavity (mouth) hosts a complex microbiome consisting of bacteria, archaea, protozoa, fungi and viruses. These bacteria are responsible for two common diseases of the human mouth including periodontal (gum) and dental caries (tooth decay). Dental caries is caused by plaques, which are a community of microorganisms in biofilm format. Genetic and peripheral factors lead to variations in the oral microbiome. It has known that, in commensalism and coexistence between microorganisms and the host, homeostasis in the oral microbiome is preserved. Nonetheless, under some conditions, a parasitic relationship dominates the existing situation and the rise of cariogenic microorganisms results in dental caries. Utilizing advanced molecular biology techniques, new cariogenic microorganisms species have been discovered. The oral microbiome of each person is quite distinct. Consequently, commonly taken measures for disease prevention cannot be exactly the same for other individuals. The chance for developing tooth decay in individuals is dependent on factors such as immune system and oral microbiome which itself is affected by the environmental and genetic determinants. Early detection of dental caries, assessment of risk factors and designing personalized measure let dentists control the disease and obtain desired results. It is necessary for a dentist to consider dental caries as a result of a biological process to be targeted than treating the consequences of decay cavities. In this research, we critically review the literature and discuss the role of microbial biofilms in dental caries.


Human oral microbial Biofilms Dental caries Periodontal 



The authors would like to acknowledge the useful comments provided by our colleagues of the Research Center for Prevention of Oral and Dental Diseases, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences.

Authors’ contribution

The authors declare that this work was done by the authors named in this article. Seyed Ali Mosaddad, Elahe Tahmasebi, Alireza Yazdanian, Mohsen Yazdanian, Alexander Seifalian, and Hamid Tebyanian were involved in study design and data collections. Seyed Ali Mosaddad, Alireza Yazdanian, Mohsen Yazdanian, Mohammad Bagher Rezvani, and Hamid Tebyanian were involved in writing and preparing this review article.


There is no financial support.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Center for Prevention of Oral and Dental DiseasesBaqiyatallah University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Veterinary, Science and Research BranchIslamic Azad UniversityTehranIran
  3. 3.Department of Operative DentistryShahed UniversityTehranIran
  4. 4.Nanotechnology and Regenerative Medicine Commercialization Centre (Ltd)The London Bioscience Innovation CenterLondonUK

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