Epididymo-orchitis caused by enteric organisms in men > 35 years old: beyond fluoroquinolones

  • Laura Ryan
  • Padraig Daly
  • Ivor Cullen
  • Maeve Doyle


Epididymo-orchitis is a common urological condition in men of all ages, causing a unilateral or bilateral swelling of the epididymis and/or testis. It is frequently caused by sexually transmitted infections, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrheae, as well as common enteric organisms implicated in urinary tract infections. Men over 35 years old may develop epididymo-orchitis associated with enteric organisms, often associated with functional bladder outlet problems such as benign prostatic hyperplasia or urethral stricture disease. Fluoroquinolones, especially ciprofloxacin, have long been the mainstay of treatment for these infections; however, rising resistance to ciprofloxacin in E. coli isolates in Europe and the USA means that there is an unprecedented necessity for alternative antimicrobials with adequate penetration into genital tissues (epididymis and testes) to allow appropriate and comprehensive treatment of epididymo-orchitis in this group of patients.


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Conflict of interest

The authors declare they have no conflicts of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Clinical MicrobiologyUniversity Hospital WaterfordWaterfordIreland
  2. 2.Department of UrologyUniversity Hospital WaterfordWaterfordIreland

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