Molecular xenomonitoring (MX) and transmission assessment survey (TAS) of lymphatic filariasis elimination in two villages, Menoufyia Governorate, Egypt

  • M. A. Moustafa
  • M. M. I. Salamah
  • H. S. Thabet
  • R. A. TawfikEmail author
  • M. M. Mehrez
  • D. M. Hamdy
Original Article


Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is focally endemic in Egypt where the female mosquito, Culex pipiens, is responsible for its transmission. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of implementation of the 13th round of MDA in two Egyptian villages in the Menoufyia Governorate area after failing the transmission assessment survey (TAS) in 2005 using two methods, and to decide whether it is safe to stop MDA in these, as well as in similar implementation units (IUs). To achieve this aim, both the immunochromatographic card test (ICT) and molecular xenomonitoring (MX) techniques were employed. A cross-sectional study was carried out in the villages in 2014 with two sections:
  • Section (1): a school-based survey where all the primary school entrants (6–7) years of age were tested by ICT.

  • Section (2): a mosquito-based survey where a total of 152 mosquito pools collected from Samalay and 167 from Kafr El-Tarainah were tested for the presence of the gDNA of Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaria by real-time PCR assays.

The results revealed that all primary school children in both villages were 100% negative for antigenemia. Also, all mosquito pools were 100% negative for the microfilarial gDNA.


Lymphatic Filariasis Mass Drug Administration Primary School Child Culex Pipiens Filarial Antigen 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Precious assistance was provided by the Egyptian Ministry of Health and Population. The W. bancrofti amplified DNA whole genome was obtained through the Filariasis Research Reagent Resource Center (FR3), Division of Microbiology and infectious Diseases, NIAID, NIH. Also we would like to thank Ahmed Mohamed Shams El-deen for his participation in the field work of this study.

Compliance with ethical standards


This work was sponsored by the WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean, in collaboration with the Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), Joint EMRO/TDR Small Grants Scheme for implementation research in communicable diseases (grant no. ID SGS 13/58). The sponsor of the study reviewed the study protocol to ensure compliance with good clinical practice standards. Otherwise, the sponsor had no role in the study design, data collection, data analysis, and data interpretation.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

The study design was reviewed and approved by the Research Ethical Committee (REC), Faculty of Medicine Ain Shams University.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. A. Moustafa
    • 1
  • M. M. I. Salamah
    • 1
  • H. S. Thabet
    • 1
  • R. A. Tawfik
    • 1
    Email author
  • M. M. Mehrez
    • 2
  • D. M. Hamdy
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Parasitology, Faculty of MedicineAin Shams UniversityCairoEgypt
  2. 2.General Department for MalariaFilariasis & Leishmaniasis Control, Endemic Diseases Control Sector, Ministry of Health and PopulationCairoEgypt

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