The purpose of this study was to test the mutant selection window (MSW) hypothesis with Escherichia coli exposed to levofloxacin in a rabbit model and to compare in vivo and in vitro exposure thresholds that restrict the selection of fluoroquinolone-resistant mutants. Local infection with E. coli was established in rabbits, and the infected animals were treated orally with various doses of levofloxacin once a day for five consecutive days. Changes in levofloxacin concentration and levofloxacin susceptibility were monitored at the site of infection. The MICs of E. coli increased when levofloxacin concentrations at the site of infection fluctuated between the lower and upper boundaries of the MSW, defined in vitro as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC99) and the mutant prevention concentration (MPC), respectively. The pharmacodynamic thresholds at which resistant mutants are not selected in vivo was estimated as AUC24/MPC > 20 h or AUC24/MIC > 60 h, where AUC24 is the area under the drug concentration time curve in a 24-h interval. Our finding demonstrated that the MSW existed in vivo. The AUC24/MPC ratio that prevented resistant mutants from being selected estimated in vivo is consistent with that observed in vitro, indicating it might be a reliable index for guiding the optimization of antimicrobial treatment regimens for suppression of the selection of antimicrobial resistance.
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This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant 30672505).
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
This study was approved by the Research Animal Care and Use Committee of the PLA General Hospital (No. 2758). All animal procedures were performed in accordance with the institutional guidelines for the humane handling, care and treatment of research animals.
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Ni, W., Song, X. & Cui, J. Testing the mutant selection window hypothesis with Escherichia coli exposed to levofloxacin in a rabbit tissue cage infection model. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 33, 385–389 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10096-013-1968-8
- Resistant Mutant
- Susceptibility Change
- Mutant Prevention Concentration
- Urinary Tract Infection Patient