A positive interaction between inhibitors of protein synthesis and cefepime in the fight against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
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Quinupristin–dalfopristin (Q-D) synergizes with cefepime for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Here, we studied whether the synergism was restricted to MRSA and if it extended to non-beta-lactam cell wall inhibitors or to other inhibitors of protein synthesis. Three MRSA and two methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) strains were tested, including an isogenic pair of mecA −/mecA + S. aureus Newman. The drug interactions were determined by fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices and population analysis profiles. The antibacterial drugs that we used included beta-lactam (cefepime) and non-beta-lactam cell wall inhibitors (D-cycloserine, fosfomycin, vancomycin, teicoplanin), inhibitors of protein synthesis (Q-D, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, linezolid, fusidic acid), and polynucleotide inhibitors (cotrimoxazole, ciprofloxacin). The addition of each protein inhibitor to cefepime was synergistic (FIC ≤ 0.5) or additive (FIC > 0.5 but < 1) against MRSA, but mostly indifferent against MSSA (FIC ≥ 1 but ≤ 4). This segregation was not observed after adding cotrimoxazole or ciprofloxacin to cefepime. Population analysis profiles were performed on plates in the presence of increasing concentrations of the cell wall inhibitors plus 0.25 × minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Q-D. Cefepime combined with Q-D was synergistic against MRSA, but D-cycloserine and glycopeptides were not. Thus, the synergism was specific to beta-lactam antibiotics. Moreover, the synergism was not lost against fem mutants, indicating that it acted at another level. The restriction of the beneficial effect to MRSA suggests that the functionality of penicillin-binding protein 2A (PBP2A) was affected, either directly or indirectly. Further studies are necessary in order to provide a mechanism for this positive interaction.
KeywordsMinimum Inhibitory Concentration Linezolid Teicoplanin Cefepime Tigecycline
This work was supported by grants 3200-47099.96 and 3200-0458.95/2 from the Swiss National Funds for Scientific Research and an unrestricted grant from the Foundation for Advances in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.
We thank Prof. Brigitte Berger-Bächi, Institute of Microbiology, University of Zürich, for generously providing the mutant strains.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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