Presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in waste waters, Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of the Congo

  • H. De Boeck
  • O. Lunguya
  • J.-J. Muyembe
  • Y. Glupczynski
  • J. Jacobs


Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae are a major public health concern. We previously demonstrated the presence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in sachet-packaged water bags sold in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of the Congo. In complement to the previous study, we aimed to assess the presence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in waste waters in Kinshasa.Enterobacteriaceae isolates recovered from environmental water samples were screened and phenotypically confirmed as ESBL-producers by disk diffusion according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines (CLSI M100-S21). Final identification to the species level and further antimicrobial susceptibility testing were carried out with MicroScan® NBC42 panels and the identification of bla ESBL coding genes was performed by a commercial multiplex ligation polymerase chain reaction (PCR) microarray (Check-Points CT 101, Wageningen, the Netherlands). Overall, 194 non-duplicate Enterobacteriaceae were recovered from several sewer and river sites in nine out of 24 municipalities of Kinshasa. Fourteen isolates (7.4 %) were confirmed as ESBL-producers, the main species being Enterobacter cloacae (46.6 %) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (40.0 %). Associated resistance to both aminoglycoside and fluoroquinolone antibiotics was observed in ten isolates; the remaining isolates showed co-resistance to either fluoroquinolone (n = 3) or to aminoglycoside (n = 1) alone. All but one isolate carried bla CTX-M genes belonging to the CTX-M-1 group. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae are increasingly being reported from various sources in the community. The present results suggest that ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae are widespread in the environment in the community of Kinshasa. Cities in Central Africa should be added to the map of potentially ESBL-contaminated environments and highlight the need to reinforce safe water supply and public sanitation.


Cefpodoxime Brilliant Green ESBL Production Enterobacteriaceae Isolate Safe Water Supply 
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This study was sponsored by the Directorate General for Development Cooperation (DGDC) of the Belgian government through the Institutional Collaboration INRB–ITM (IC 2.01). O.L. has a Ph.D. scholarship from the DGDC. The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. De Boeck
    • 1
  • O. Lunguya
    • 2
  • J.-J. Muyembe
    • 2
  • Y. Glupczynski
    • 3
  • J. Jacobs
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Clinical SciencesInstitute of Tropical Medicine (ITM)AntwerpBelgium
  2. 2.Institut National de Recherche Biomédicale (INRB)KinshasaDemocratic Republic of the Congo
  3. 3.National Reference Laboratory for Monitoring of Antimicrobial Resistance in Gram-negative BacteriaCliniques Universitaires UCL de Mont-GodinneYvoirBelgium

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