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Presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in waste waters, Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of the Congo

  • H. De Boeck
  • O. Lunguya
  • J.-J. Muyembe
  • Y. Glupczynski
  • J. Jacobs
Article

Abstract

Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae are a major public health concern. We previously demonstrated the presence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in sachet-packaged water bags sold in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of the Congo. In complement to the previous study, we aimed to assess the presence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in waste waters in Kinshasa.Enterobacteriaceae isolates recovered from environmental water samples were screened and phenotypically confirmed as ESBL-producers by disk diffusion according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines (CLSI M100-S21). Final identification to the species level and further antimicrobial susceptibility testing were carried out with MicroScan® NBC42 panels and the identification of bla ESBL coding genes was performed by a commercial multiplex ligation polymerase chain reaction (PCR) microarray (Check-Points CT 101, Wageningen, the Netherlands). Overall, 194 non-duplicate Enterobacteriaceae were recovered from several sewer and river sites in nine out of 24 municipalities of Kinshasa. Fourteen isolates (7.4 %) were confirmed as ESBL-producers, the main species being Enterobacter cloacae (46.6 %) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (40.0 %). Associated resistance to both aminoglycoside and fluoroquinolone antibiotics was observed in ten isolates; the remaining isolates showed co-resistance to either fluoroquinolone (n = 3) or to aminoglycoside (n = 1) alone. All but one isolate carried bla CTX-M genes belonging to the CTX-M-1 group. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae are increasingly being reported from various sources in the community. The present results suggest that ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae are widespread in the environment in the community of Kinshasa. Cities in Central Africa should be added to the map of potentially ESBL-contaminated environments and highlight the need to reinforce safe water supply and public sanitation.

Keywords

Cefpodoxime Brilliant Green ESBL Production Enterobacteriaceae Isolate Safe Water Supply 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Funding

This study was sponsored by the Directorate General for Development Cooperation (DGDC) of the Belgian government through the Institutional Collaboration INRB–ITM (IC 2.01). O.L. has a Ph.D. scholarship from the DGDC. The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. De Boeck
    • 1
  • O. Lunguya
    • 2
  • J.-J. Muyembe
    • 2
  • Y. Glupczynski
    • 3
  • J. Jacobs
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Clinical SciencesInstitute of Tropical Medicine (ITM)AntwerpBelgium
  2. 2.Institut National de Recherche Biomédicale (INRB)KinshasaDemocratic Republic of the Congo
  3. 3.National Reference Laboratory for Monitoring of Antimicrobial Resistance in Gram-negative BacteriaCliniques Universitaires UCL de Mont-GodinneYvoirBelgium

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