The main objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of bla NDM-1 in Gram-negative bacteria in Bangladesh. In October 2010 at the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B) laboratories, 1,816 consecutive clinical samples were tested for imipenem-resistant Gram-negative organisms. Imipenem-resistant isolates were tested for the bla NDM-1 gene. Among 403 isolates, 14 (3.5 %) were positive for bla NDM-1, and the predominant species were Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Escherichia coli. All bla NDM-1-positive isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Among β-lactamase genes, bla CTX-M-1-group was detected in ten isolates (eight bla CTX-M-15), bla OXA-1-group in six, bla TEM in nine, bla SHV in seven, and bla VIM and bla CMY in two isolates each. The 16S rRNA methylase gene, armA, was detected in five K. pneumoniae isolates and in one E. coli isolate. rmtB and rmtC were detected in a Citrobacter freundii and two K. pneumoniae isolates, respectively. qnr genes were detected in two K. pneumoniae isolates (one qnrB and one qnrS) and in an E. coli isolate (qnrA). Transferable plasmids (60–100 MDa) carrying bla NDM-1 were detected in 7 of the 11 plasmid-containing isolates. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis grouped K. pneumoniae isolates into three clusters, while E. coli isolates differed significantly from each other. This study reports that approximately 3.5 % of Gram-negative clinical isolates in Bangladesh are NDM-1-producing.
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This research study was supported by the ICDDR,B and a European Union FP7 project—TEMPOtest-QC (Project Number 241742). The ICDDR,B acknowledges with gratitude the commitment of the European Union to its research efforts. The ICDDR,B also gratefully acknowledges the following donors which provide unrestricted support: Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID), Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida), and the Department for International Development (DFID), UK.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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Islam, M.A., Talukdar, P.K., Hoque, A. et al. Emergence of multidrug-resistant NDM-1-producing Gram-negative bacteria in Bangladesh. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 31, 2593–2600 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10096-012-1601-2
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