Skip to main content

Impact of the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System on the development of a national programme to monitor resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae in Ireland, 1999–2003

Abstract

Presented here is the 5-year impact of a national antimicrobial resistance surveillance system in Ireland, which was introduced in accordance with the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS). Participation in EARSS began in Ireland in 1999. Initially, 12 laboratories serving a mix of general and tertiary hospitals participated, but by 2003, participation had increased to 28 laboratories with a population coverage of 89%. During 1999–2003, 4,146 episodes of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia were reported, and methicillin resistance was detected in 1,709 (41.2%) of these isolates. Over the same period, 1,245 invasive (blood or cerebrospinal fluid) episodes of Streptococcus pneumoniae infection were reported, and 160 (12.9%) isolates were found to be non-susceptible to penicillin, with 23 (1.8%) demonstrating high-level penicillin resistance. By 2003, most Irish hospitals were participating in EARSS, which has been a catalyst for the development of a national antimicrobial resistance surveillance programme.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

References

  1. O’Brien TF (1997) The global epidemic nature of antimicrobial resistance and the need to monitor and manage it locally. Clin Infect Dis 24 (Suppl 1):2–8

    Google Scholar 

  2. The Copenhagen Recommendations (1998) Report from an Invitational European Union Conference on ‘The Microbial Threat’. Copenhagen, Denmark

  3. Subgroup of the Scientific Advisory Committee of the NDSC on Antimicrobial Resistance (2001) A strategy for the control of antimicrobial resistance in Ireland (SARI). The National Disease Surveillance Centre, Dublin, Ireland, pp 9–10

    Google Scholar 

  4. Bronzwaer SLAM, Goettsch W, Olsson-Liljequist B, Wale MC, Vatopoulos AC, Sprenger MJ (1999) European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS): objectives and organisation. Eurosurveillance 4:41–44

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. National institute of Public Health and the Environment. EARSS Annual Report 2002. Chapter 4. Netherlands 2003. http://www.earss.rivm.nl/PAGINA/DOC/rep2002/annual-report-2002.pdf

  6. Humphreys H, O’Flanagan D (2001) Surveillance of hospital-acquired infection in the Republic of Ireland; past, present and future. J Hosp Infect 49:69–73

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Johnson Z, Fitzpatrick P, Hayes C, Sayers G, Pelly H, McDonnell B, Thornton L, Buttimer J (1997) National survey of MRSA: Ireland, 1995. J Hosp Infect 35:175–184

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. McDonald P, Mitchell E, Johnson H, Rossney A, Humphreys H, Glynn G, Burd M, Doyle D, Mc Donnell R (2003) MRSA bacteraemia: north/south study of MRSA in Ireland 1999. J Hosp Infect 52:288–291

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Cosgrove SE, Sakoulas G, Perencevich EN, Karchmer AW, Carmeli Y (2003) Comparison of mortality associated with methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: a meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis 36:53–59

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Maugein J, Guillemot D, Dupont MJ, Fosse T, Laurans G, Roussel-Delvallez M, Thierry J, Vergnaud M, Weber M, Poirier B (2003) Clinical and microbiological epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia in eight counties. Clin Microbiol Infect 9:280–288

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Goldsmith CE, Moore JE, Murphy PG (1997) Pneumococcal resistance in the UK. J Antimicrob Chemother 40 (Suppl A):11–18

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Felmingham D, Gruneberg RN and the Alexander Project Group (2000) The Alexander Project 1996–1997: latest susceptibility data from this international study of bacterial pathogens from community acquired lower respiratory tract infection. J Antimicrob Chemother 45:191–203

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Whitney CG, Farley MM, Hadler J, Harrison LH, Bennett NM, Lynfield R, Reingold A, Cieslak PR, Pilishvili T, Jackson D, Facklam RR, Jorgensen JH, Schuchat A, Active Bacterial Core Surveillance of the Emerging Infections Program Network (2003) Decline in invasive pneumococcal disease after the introduction of protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccine. N Engl J Med 348:1737–1746

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Bennett D, Lennon B, Humphreys H, Cafferkey M (2003) Penicillin susceptibility and epidemiological typing of invasive pneumococcal isolates in the Republic of Ireland. J Clin Microbiol 41:3641–3648

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Clarke P, Murchan S, Smyth EG, Humphreys H (2004) Antimicrobial susceptibility of invasive isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Ireland. Clin Microb Infect 10:657–659

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We are grateful for the help and assistance of all EARSS participating laboratories without which this data could not be collected and analyzed

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to H. Humphreys.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Murphy, O.M., Murchan, S., Whyte, D. et al. Impact of the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System on the development of a national programme to monitor resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae in Ireland, 1999–2003. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 24, 480–483 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10096-005-1357-z

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10096-005-1357-z

Keywords

  • Moxifloxacin
  • Minimum Inhibitory Concentration
  • Population Coverage
  • Methicillin Resistance
  • External Quality Assurance