Antibiotic Resistance Rates and Phenotypes Among Isolates of Enterobacteriaceae in French Extra-Hospital Practice


Antibiotic resistance among members of the family Enterobacteriaceae was prospectively surveyed by eight French private laboratories over a 5-month period in 1999. A total of 2,599 consecutive and nonduplicate strains were collected, mainly (60.9%) from patients in the community. Most strains (82.9%) derived from urine. Escherichia coli was the predominant (73.9%) organism isolated. The overall rates of antibiotic resistance were as follows: amoxicillin, 53.4%; amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, 27.3%; ticarcillin, 44.2%; piperacillin-tazobactam, 3.2%; cephalothin, 29.2%; cefuroxime, 14.7%; cefoxitin, 11.5%; ceftazidime, 3.6%; cefotaxime, 2.8%; cefepime, 0.3%; imipenem, 0.1%; gentamicin (G), 3.8%; tobramycin (T), 5.0%; netilmicin (Nt), 3.7%; amikacin (A), 0.7%; nalidixic acid, 14.3%; ofloxacin, 10.4%; cotrimoxazole, 21.1%; nitrofurantoin, 12.7%; fosfomycin, 5.2%; tetracycline, 50.1%; and colistin, 12.5%. Beta-lactam resistance phenotypes essentially comprised penicillinase production (33.9%), overexpression of chromosomal cephalosporinase (4.6%), and synthesis of inhibitor-resistant TEM/OXA enzymes (1.5%) or extended-spectrum β-lactamases (1.5%). Aminoglycoside resistance phenotypes consisted of GTNt (93 strains), TNtA (68 strains), GTNtA (14 strains), T (4 strains), GT (3 strains), G (1 strain), and reduced uptake/permeability (3 strains). Most of the nalidixic acid-resistant strains were resistant to ofloxacin (72.8%). Antibiotic resistance rates and phenotypes varied widely according to the bacterial group and the source of the strains. Significantly higher rates were observed in private healthcare centers than in the community, due to a higher proportion of both resistant species and resistant strains. However, multidrug-resistant isolates, including five extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing strains, were also recovered from the community.

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The authors are grateful to the I2A Company for lending the SIRscan system during the study period. This work was supported by grants from Bristol-Myers Squibb, Glaxo Wellcome, MSD-Chibret, Roussel Diamant, SmithKline Beecham, and Wyeth Léderlé Companies, France. The experiments comply with the current French laws.

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Correspondence to C. Quentin.

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Quentin, C., Arpin, C., Dubois, V. et al. Antibiotic Resistance Rates and Phenotypes Among Isolates of Enterobacteriaceae in French Extra-Hospital Practice. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 23, 185–193 (2004).

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  • Ofloxacin
  • Klebsiella Pneumoniae
  • Nalidixic Acid
  • Cefepime
  • Serratia Marcescens