Advertisement

Journal of Wood Science

, Volume 59, Issue 4, pp 351–357 | Cite as

Methods of inoculating Acer spp., Populus tremuloides, and Fagus grandifolia logs for commercial spalting applications

  • Sara C. Robinson
  • Daniela Tudor
  • Sara Hipson
  • Hilary Snider
  • Sheena Ng
  • Elena Korshikov
  • Paul A. Cooper
Note

Abstract

One of the most promising wood value-added processes currently under development is spalting, where pigment is added to wood via fungal colonization. Previous studies have shown laboratory level spalting to be achievable and highly predictable. However, large-scale spalting for potential commercial applications introduces a substantial number of additional variables which impact the spalting process. To test the potential of commercial-scale spalting, Acer saccharum, Fagus grandifolia, and Populus tremuloides logs were inoculated with multiple known spalting fungi utilizing both liquid spray cultures and live dowel pin cultures. Many of the fungi that successfully produce spalting in small, sterile cultures also produced significant amounts in large logs, with many spalting patterns identical to those found in small-scale testing. Pairings of Trametes versicolor/Scytalidium cuboideum and Xylaria polymorpha/Xylaria polymorpha (different isolates) produced significant amounts of zone lines. In addition, the method of inoculation impacted the amount of spalting: more zone lines were produced when fungi were introduced via plugs, while more stain was produced when liquid cultures were sprayed onto the logs. These results indicate that many of the standard spalting fungi are suitable for large-scale applications; however, the inoculation method appears to be a vital component for successful spalting under a restricted time schedule.

Keywords

Acer saccharum Fagus grandifolia Populus tremuloides Spalting 

References

  1. 1.
    Blanchette RA, Wilmering AM, Baumeister M (1992) The use of green-stained wood caused by the fungus Chlorociboria in Intarsia masterpieces from the 15th century. Holzforschung 46:225–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Donovan G, Nicholls D (2003) Consumer preference and willingness to pay for character-marked cabinets from Alaska birch. For Prod J 53(11/12):27–32Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Robinson SC (2012) Developing fungal pigments for ‘painting’ vascular plants. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 93(4):1389–1394PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Robinson SC, Tudor D, Mansourian Y, Cooper PA (2013) The effects of several commercial wood coatings on the deterioration of biological pigments in wood exposed to UV light. Wood Sci Technol. doi: 10.1007/s00226-012-0502-y
  5. 5.
    Robinson SC, Tudor D, Cooper PA (2012) Promoting fungal pigment formation in wood by utilizing a modified decay jar method. Wood Sci Technol 46:841–849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Robinson SC, Richter DL, Laks PE (2007) Colonization of sugar maple by spalting fungi. For Prod J 57(4):24–32Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Robinson SC, Tudor D, Cooper PA (2011) Wood preference by spalting fungi in urban hardwood species. Int Biodet Biodeg 65:1145–1149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Robinson SC, Laks PE, Turnquist EJ (2009) A method for digital color analysis of spalted wood using Scion Image software. Materials 2(1):62–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Robinson SC, Tudor D, Cooper PA (2012) Utilizing pigment-producing fungi to add commercial value to American beech (Fagus grandifolia). Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 93(3):1041–1048PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Robinson SC, Tudor D, Cooper PA (2011) Feasibility of using red pigment producing fungi to stain wood for decorative applications. Can J For Res 41:1722–1728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Robinson SC, Richter DL, Laks PE (2009) Effects of substrate on laboratory spalting of sugar maple. Holzforschung 63:491–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Robinson SC, Laks PE (2010) Culture age and wood species affect zone line production of Xylaria polymorpha. Open Mycol J 4:18–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Robinson SC, Laks PE, Richter DL, Pickens JB (2007) Evaluating loss of machinability in spalted sugar maple. For Prod J 57(4):33–37Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Behrendt CJ, Blanchette RA (1997) Biological processes of pine logs for pulp and paper production with Phlebiopsis gigantea. Appl Environ Microbiol 63(5):1995–2000PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Behrendt CJ, Blanchette RA, Farrell RL (1995) Biological control of blue-stain fungi in wood. Am Phytopathol Soc 85(1):92–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Behrendt CJ, Blanchette RA, Farrell RL (1995) An integrated approach, using biological and chemical control, to prevent blue stain in pine logs. Can J Bot 73:613–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    White-McDougall WJ, Blanchette RA, Farrell RL (1998) Biological control of blue stain fungi on Populus tremuloides using selected Ophiostoma isolates. Holzforschung 52:234–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Helt BW, Thwaites JM, Farrell RL, Blanchette RA (2003) Alibino strains of Ophiostoma species for biological control of sapstaining fungi. Holzforschung 57:237–242Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Campbell AC, Racjan M (1999) The commercial exploitation of the white rot fungus Lentinula edodes (shiitake). Int Biodet Biodeg 43(3):101–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Leatham GF (1982) Cultivation of shiitake, the Japanese forest mushroom, on logs: a potential industry for the United States. For Prod J 32(8):29–35Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Robinson SC, Laks PE (2010) Wood species affects colonization rates of Chlorociboria sp. Int Biodet Biodeg 64:305–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Robinson SC, Tudor D, Snider H, Cooper PA (2012) Stimulating growth and xylindein production of Chlorociboria aeruginascens in agar-based systems. AMB Express 2(15). doi: 10.1186/2191-0855-2-15

Copyright information

© The Japan Wood Research Society 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sara C. Robinson
    • 1
    • 4
  • Daniela Tudor
    • 1
  • Sara Hipson
    • 1
  • Hilary Snider
    • 2
  • Sheena Ng
    • 3
  • Elena Korshikov
    • 1
  • Paul A. Cooper
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of ForestryUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Department of Human BiologyUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  3. 3.University CollegeUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  4. 4.Department of Wood Science and EngineeringOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA

Personalised recommendations