The effect of tool angles on the shapes of chips generated by parallel-to-grain and end-grain milling was explored for China fir and maple under fixed spindle and feed speeds and cutting depth. The milling path was up-milling by straight router-bits with a diameter of 12 mm. The chip shapes could be distinguished as five types: spiral, splinter, flow, thin, and granules or powder. The flow and thin chips were generated most often (on a weight percentage basis) for all tool angles investigated for parallel-to-grain and end-grain milling of China fir and maple. More granule chips were produced with parallel-to-grain milling than with end-grain milling for both woods. The measured chip thickness (t′) was thicker than the calculated thickness (t max). Thicker and longer maple chips were produced by end-grain milling than by parallel-to-grain milling. The tool geometries of 40°/15° (sharpness of the angle–rake angle), 50°/15°, and 60°/15° for China fir and 40°/25°, 50°/5°, and 60°/5° for maple produced relatively more flow chips with parallel-to-grain milling. Furthermore, the tool geometries of 40°/5°, 50°/15° and 60°/25° produced more flow chips (weight percentage) by end-grain milling of China fir and maple.
Received: May 23, 2001 / Accepted: June 28, 2002
Acknowledgment This study was supported by a grant from the National Council of Science, Taiwan (NSC89-2313-B-415-011).
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Su, W., Wang, Y., Zhu, N. et al. Effect of tool angles on the chips generated during milling of wood by straight router-bits. J Wood Sci 49, 271–274 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10086-002-0470-1
- Key words Chip length
- Chip thickness
- Tool geometry