Skip to main content
Log in

The effectiveness of bodyweight-supported treadmill training in stroke patients: randomized controlled trial

  • Original Article
  • Published:
Neurological Sciences Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Objective

This study aimed to assess the impact of conventional rehabilitation (CR) and the combination of bodyweight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT) with CR on walking speed, endurance, balance, mobility, and the quality of life in stroke survivors.

Method

In this prospective, randomized, controlled, and single-blind study, 30 stroke patients were included (ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT04597658 date: October 22, 2020). These patients were divided into two groups: (1) CR only (control group, n = 14) and (2) CR with BWSTT (experimental group, n = 16). Both groups received CR for 3 consecutive weeks, 5 days a week, for 30 min each day. The experimental group received an additional 30 min of BWSTT per session. Patients were evaluated using the 10-m walk test (10MWT), the six-minute walk test (6MWT), the Tinetti Balance and Gait Assessment Score, the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, the Rivermead Mobility Index (RMI), and the Stroke-Specific Quality of Life Scale (SS-QOL) before and after the intervention.

Results

Both groups showed significant improvements across all scales after the intervention. The BWSTT group exhibited particularly noteworthy enhancements in comfortable 10MWT and TUG scores (p = 0.043 and p = 0.025, respectively) compared to the CR group post-intervention.

Conclusion

In conclusion, a holistic approach combining conventional physiotherapy with overground gait training can enhance various aspects of mobility. This approach offers a cost-effective and equipment-free alternative to BWSTT and necessitates specialized treadmill and bodyweight support systems, incurring higher costs. However, using BWSTT as a co-therapy therapy can be costly but provides additional benefits for enhancing functional mobility.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1

Similar content being viewed by others

Data Availability

The data that support the findings of this study are not openly available due to reasons of sensitivity and areavailable from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.

References

  1. Edwardson MA et al (2017) Ischemic stroke prognosis in adults. Available from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/ischemic-stroke-prognosis-in-adults. Accessed 15 Dec 2016

  2. Langhorne P, Coupar F, Pollock A (2009) Motor recovery after stroke: a systematic review. The Lancet Neurology 8(8):741–754

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Silva SM et al (2015) Evaluation of post-stroke functionality based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health: a proposal for use of assessment tools. J Phys Ther Sci 27(6):1665–1670

    Article  ADS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  4. Sousa CO et al (2011) Gait training with partial body weight support during overground walking for individuals with chronic stroke: a pilot study. J Neuroeng Rehabil 8:1–8

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Bonnyaud C et al (2014) Effect of an overground training session versus a treadmill training session on timed up and go in hemiparetic patients. Top Stroke Rehabil 21(6):477–483

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Combs-Miller SA et al (2014) Body weight-supported treadmill training vs overground walking training for persons with chronic stroke: a pilot randomized controlled trial. Clin Rehabil 28(9):873–884

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Gama GL et al (2017) Effects of gait training with body weight support on a treadmill versus overground in individuals with stroke. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 98(4):738–745

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Duncan PW et al (2011) Body-weight-supported treadmill rehabilitation after stroke. N Engl J Med 364(21):2026–2036

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  9. Middleton A et al (2014) Body weight-supported treadmill training is no better than overground training for individuals with chronic stroke: a randomized controlled trial. Top Stroke Rehabil 21(6):462–476

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  10. Mao Y-R et al (2015) The effect of body weight support treadmill training on gait recovery, proximal lower limb motor pattern, and balance in patients with subacute stroke. BioMed Res Int 2015:175719

  11. Srivastava A et al (2016) Bodyweight-supported treadmill training for retraining gait among chronic stroke survivors: a randomized controlled study. Ann Phys Rehabil Med 59(4):235–241

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, Taking Action for Optimal Community and Long-Term Stroke Care (TACLS) (2021) Available from: https://www.heartandstroke.ca/-/media/1-stroke-best-practices/tacls-2021/tacls-manual-final-eng.ashx?rev=8b779deb44044b07bcb84ab8e6fc2ea9. Accessed 15 Jan 2024

  13. Winstein CJ et al (2016) Guidelines for adult stroke rehabilitation and recovery: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke 47(6):e98–e169

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Billinger SA et al (2014) Physical activity and exercise recommendations for stroke survivors: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke 45(8):2532–2553

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Dt W (1992) Measurement in neurological rehabilitation. Curr Opin Neurol Neurosurg 5:682–686

    Google Scholar 

  16. Eng JJ et al (2002) Functional walk tests in individuals with stroke: relation to perceived exertion and myocardial exertion. Stroke 33(3):756–761

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Butland RJ et al (1982) Two-, six-, and 12-minute walking tests in respiratory disease. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 284(6329):1607

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Tinetti ME (1986) Performance-oriented assessment of mobility problems in elderly patients. J Am Geriatr Soc 34(2):119–126

  19. Tinetti ME, Williams TF, Mayewski R (1986) Fall risk index for elderly patients based on number of chronic disabilities. Am J Med 80(3):429–434

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Bohannon RW (2006) Reference values for the timed up and go test: a descriptive meta-analysis. J Geriatr Phys Ther 29(2):64–68

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Collen FM et al (1991) The Rivermead mobility index: a further development of the Rivermead motor assessment. Int Disabil Stud 13(2):50–54

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Williams LS et al (1999) Development of a stroke-specific quality of life scale. Stroke 30(7):1362–1369

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Dickstein R (2008) Rehabilitation of gait speed after stroke: a critical review of intervention approaches. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 22(6):649–660

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. Mehrholz J, Thomas S, Elsner B (2017) Treadmill training and body weight support for walking after stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 8(8):CD002840

  25. Ada L et al (2003) A treadmill and overground walking program improves walking in persons residing in the community after stroke: a placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 84(10):1486–1491

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. Jaffe DL et al (2004) Stepping over obstacles to improve walking in individuals with poststroke hemiplegia. J Rehabil Res Dev 41(3A):283–292

  27. Liston R et al (2000) Conventional physiotherapy and treadmill re-training for higher-level gait disorders in cerebrovascular disease. Age Ageing 29(4):311–318

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Eich H et al (2004) Aerobic treadmill plus Bobath walking training improves walking in subacute stroke: a randomized controlled trial. Clin Rehabil 18(6):640–651

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. Nilsson L et al (2001) Walking training of patients with hemiparesis at an early stage after stroke: a comparison of walking training on a treadmill with body weight support and walking training on the ground. Clin Rehabil 15(5):515–527

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. Visintin M et al (1998) A new approach to retrain gait in stroke patients through body weight support and treadmill stimulation. Stroke 29(6):1122–1128

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. Mustafaoğlu R et al (2018) The effects of body weight-supported treadmill training on static and dynamic balance in stroke patients: a pilot, single-blind, randomized trial. Turk J Phys Med Rehabil 64(4):344

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  32. Lura DJ et al (2019) Body weight supported treadmill vs. overground gait training for acute stroke gait rehabilitation. Int J Rehabil Res 42(3):270–274

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. Park J, Kim T-H (2019) The effects of balance and gait function on quality of life of stroke patients. Neuro Rehabilitation 44(1):37–41

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Elif Tarihci Cakmak.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no competing interests.

Ethical approval

The University Clinical Research Ethics Committee approval was received for the study (Protocol number: 2018/735).

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Springer Nature or its licensor (e.g. a society or other partner) holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Tarihci Cakmak, E., Yaliman, A., Torna, G. et al. The effectiveness of bodyweight-supported treadmill training in stroke patients: randomized controlled trial. Neurol Sci (2024). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10072-024-07385-z

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10072-024-07385-z

Keywords

Navigation