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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of the study population according to MoCA (expressed as means and standard deviation; differences expressed as p value, effect size and relative 95% CI)

From: Cognitive impairment in young COVID-19 patients: the tip of the iceberg?

Parameter Population (n = 32) MoCA < 23 (n = 13) MoCA > 23
(n = 19)
p Effect size (95% CI)
Age (years) 53.77(4.81) 54.64(5.16) 53.26(4.66) 0.461a 0.283 (− 0.466 to − 1.027)b
Length of stay (days) 16.54(9.08) 17(12.21) 16.29(7.35) 0.885a 0.076 (− 0.733 to 0.884)b
SpO2 (%)c 94.77(2.28) 94.81(2.60) 94.74(2.16) 0.927a 0.035 (− 0.708 to 0.777)b
HR (bpm)c 66.43(13.82) 68.91(14.53) 65(13.59) 0.465a 0.281 (− 0.468 to 1.024)b
SpO2 (%)d 95.33(3.56) 95.45(3.50) 95.26(3.68) 0.890a 0.053 (− 0.690 to 0.795)b
HR (bpm)d 80.83(13.89) 76(16.20) 81.89(12.72) 0.591a  − 0.206 (− 0.949 to 0.540)b
ΔSpO2 (%)e 0.57(3.06) 0.64(2.33) 0.53(3.47) 0.926a 0.035 (− 0.708 to 0.778)b
ΔHR (bpm)f 14.40(15.32) 10.09(20.34) 16.89(11.41) 0.248a 0.447 (− 1.195 to 0.308)b
HAM-D 4.90(5.30) 4.73(5.62) 5(5.26) 0.895a  − 0.051 (− 0.793 to 0.693)b
HAM-A 5.93(5.66) 5(5.40) 6.47(5.87) 0.501a  − 0.258 (− 1.001 to 0.490)b
MoCA score 23.50(4.24) 19.01(3.70) 26.03(2.72) 0.0001a  − 2.430 (− 3.393 to 1.441)b
Sub-itemsg
  - Orientation 5/25 5/8 0/19 0.0001 h 3.497 (0.468 to 6.525)i
  - Denomination 2/28 1/12 1/18 0.685 h 0.588 (− 2.290 to 3.465)i
  - Visuospatial Ability 8/22 7/6 1/18 0.0002 h 3.450 (1.091 to 5.809)i
  - Executive Functions 17/13 10/3 7/12 0.004 h 2.842 (0.584 to 5.099)i
  - Memory 23/7 10/3 13/6 0.161 h 1.529 (− 0.742 to 3.801)i
  - Attention 10/20 5/8 5/14 0.284 h 0.847 (− 0.718 to 2.413)i
  - Fluency 14/16 9/4 5/14 0.003 h 2.534 (0.692 to 4.375)i
  - Calculation 9/21 8/5 1/18 0.0001 h 3.871 (1.460 to 6.283)i
Comorbidities (Yes/No)
  - Hypertension 11/21 6/7 5/14 0.122 h  − 1.212 (− 2.778 to 0.354)i
  - T2DM 5/27 3/10 2/17 0.236 h  − 1.159 (− 3.136 to 0.817)i
  1. SpO2, blood oxygen saturation; HR, heart rate; MoCA, Montreal Cognitive Assessment; HAM-D, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale; HAM-A, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale; T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus. aStudent t-test (significance for p < 0.05); bCohen’s d and relative 95% confidence interval; cbefore MoCA; dafter MoCA; eΔSpO2, SpO2 after MoCA-SpO2 before MoCA; fΔHR, HR after MoCA-HR before MoCA; gnumber of subjects with pathological score/number of subjects with normal score; hchi-squared test (significance for p < 0.05); iodds ratio and relative 95% confidence interval