Identification of distinct blood-based biomarkers in early stage of Parkinson’s disease

  • Yingyan Wu
  • Qian Yao
  • Guo-Xin Jiang
  • Gang Wang
  • Qi ChengEmail author
Original Article


Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a slowly progressive geriatric disease, which can be one of the leading causes of serious socioeconomic burden in the aging society. Clinical trials suggest that prompt treatment of early-stage Parkinson’s disease (EPD) may slow down the disease progress and have a better response. Therefore, conducting proteomics study to identify biomarkers for the diagnosis and disease-modifying therapies of EPD is vital. We aimed at identifying distinct protein autoantibody biomarkers of EPD by using the database of GSE62283 based on the platform GPL13669 downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) between the EPD group (n = 103) and the normal control (NC) group (n = 111) were identified by protein-specific t test. Cluster analysis of DEPs was conducted by protein–protein interaction network to detect hub proteins. The hub proteins were then evaluated to determine the distinct biomarkers by principal component analysis, as well as functional and pathway enrichment analysis. Their biological functions were confirmed by gene ontology functional (GO) and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes pathway enrichment (KEGG). Two biomarkers, mitochondrial ribosome recycling factor (MRRF) and ribosomal protein S18 (RPS18), distinguished the EPD samples from the NC samples, and they were regarded as high-confidence distinct protein autoantibody biomarkers of EPD. The most significant GO function was protein serine/threonine kinase activity (GO: 0004674) and most of DEPs were enriched in ATP binding in molecular function category (GO: 0005524). These results may help in establishing the prompt and accurate diagnosis of EPD and may also contribute to develop mechanism-based treatments.


Early-stage Parkinson’s disease Blood-based biomarker Functional analysis Protein-protein interaction 



Parkinson’s disease


Early-stage Parkinson’s disease


Normal control


Differentially expressed proteins


Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes


Gene ontology


Protein–protein interaction




Principal component analysis


Funding information

This work was supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (grant number 2016YFC1306000).

Compliance with ethical standards

The original study [20] is approved by Rowan-Stratford Institutional Review Board.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Fondazione Società Italiana di Neurologia 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Public HealthShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and EthicsKarolinska InstituteStockholmSweden
  3. 3.Department of Neurology & Neuroscience InstituteRuijin Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of MedicineShanghaiChina

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