Skip to main content

Advertisement

Log in

Dietary pattern in relation to the risk of Alzheimer’s disease: a systematic review

Neurological Sciences Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease leading to a gradual and irreversible loss of memory, linguistic skills, and perception of time and space, thinking, and behavior. Dietary pattern has been presented as a contributor to the incidence of Alzheimer’s. This study aimed at reviewing the evidence on the relation between dietary pattern and AD. This systematic search was performed on the articles available in PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Sciences databases until May 2019 using keywords, including (diet, food, dietary pattern, food pattern) and (Alzheimer’s disease) among observational studies. After excluding duplicated, and irrelevant studies, 26 studies were eligible for this review study. We categorized the studied dietary patterns into two groups: healthy and unhealthy diet. This study reviewed two case-control, five cross-sectional, and 19 prospective studies. Eight studies assessed unhealthy diet (high-fat diet, high-glycemic diet, sweetened sugary beverage, etc.) and the risk of AD. In addition, the other studies considered the effect of healthy diet such as Mediterranean diet, dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH), Mediterranean-DASH intervention for neurodegenerative delay, and seafood-rich diet on AD. This literature review indicated that adherence to a healthy dietary pattern has neuroprotective effects on AD prevention, while unhealthy diet can cause neurodegenerative effects in AD etiology. In conclusion, our findings showed that adherence to healthy diet can decrease oxidative stress and inflammation and accumulation of amyloid-β and consequently can decrease the risk of AD.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Institutional subscriptions

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  1. Blennow K, de Leon MJ, Zetterberg H (2006) Alzheimer’s disease. Lancet (London, England) 368(9533):387–403. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(06)69113-7

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Association As (2017) 2017 Alzheimer’s disease facts and figures. Alzheimers Dement 13(4):325–373

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Hebert LE, Weuve J, Scherr PA, Evans DA (2013) Alzheimer disease in the United States (2010–2050) estimated using the 2010 census. Neurology 80(19):1778–1783

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  4. Hebert L, Bienias J, Aggarwal N, Wilson R, Bennett D, Shah R, Evans D (2010) Change in risk of Alzheimer disease over time. Neurology 75(9):786–791

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  5. Green RC, Cupples LA, Go R, Benke KS, Edeki T, Griffith PA, Williams M, Hipps Y, Graff-Radford N, Bachman D (2002) Risk of dementia among white and African American relatives of patients with Alzheimer disease. Jama 287(3):329–336

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Tyas SL, Manfreda J, Strain LA, Montgomery PR (2001) Risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease: a population-based, longitudinal study in Manitoba, Canada. Int J Epidemiol 30(3):590–597

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Saunders AM, Strittmatter WJ, Schmechel D, George-Hyslop PS, Pericak-Vance M, Joo S, Rosi B, Gusella J, Crapper-MacLachlan D, Alberts M (1993) Association of apolipoprotein E allele ϵ4 with late-onset familial and sporadic Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology 43(8):1467–1467

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Farrer LA, Cupples LA, Haines JL, Hyman B, Kukull WA, Mayeux R, Myers RH, Pericak-Vance MA, Risch N, Van Duijn CM (1997) Effects of age, sex, and ethnicity on the association between apolipoprotein E genotype and Alzheimer disease: a meta-analysis. Jama 278(16):1349–1356

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Baumgart M, Snyder HM, Carrillo MC, Fazio S, Kim H, Johns H (2015) Summary of the evidence on modifiable risk factors for cognitive decline and dementia: a population-based perspective. Alzheimers Dement 11(6):718–726

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Hill E, Clifton P, Goodwill AM, Dennerstein L, Campbell S, Szoeke C (2018) Dietary patterns and β-amyloid deposition in aging Australian women. Alzheimer’s & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions

  11. Taylor MK, Sullivan DK, Swerdlow RH, Vidoni ED, Morris JK, Mahnken JD, Burns JM (2017) A high-glycemic diet is associated with cerebral amyloid burden in cognitively normal older adults. Am J Clin Nutr 106(6):1463–1470

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  12. Gu Y, Schupf N, Cosentino S, Luchsinger J, Scarmeas N (2012) Nutrient intake and plasma β-amyloid. Neurology 78(23):1832–1840

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  13. Wang J, Ho L, Qin W, Rocher AB, Seror I, Humala N, Maniar K, Dolios G, Wang R, Hof PR (2005) Caloric restriction attenuates β-amyloid neuropathology in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. FASEB J 19(6):659–661

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Merrill DA, Siddarth P, Raji CA, Emerson ND, Rueda F, Ercoli LM, Miller KJ, Lavretsky H, Harris LM, Burggren AC (2016) Modifiable risk factors and brain positron emission tomography measures of amyloid and tau in nondemented adults with memory complaints. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 24(9):729–737

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  15. Luchsinger J, Tang M, Mayeux R (2007) Glycemic load and risk of Alzheimer’s disease. The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging 11(3):238

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Ylilauri MP, Voutilainen S, Lönnroos E, Mursu J, Virtanen HE, Koskinen TT, Salonen JT, Tuomainen T-P, Virtanen JK (2017) Association of dietary cholesterol and egg intakes with the risk of incident dementia or Alzheimer disease: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study, 2. Am J Clin Nutr 105(2):476–484

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Dernini S, Berry EM (2015) Mediterranean diet: from a healthy diet to a sustainable dietary pattern. Frontiers in nutrition 2:15

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  18. Francis HM, Stevenson RJ (2011) Higher reported saturated fat and refined sugar intake is associated with reduced hippocampal-dependent memory and sensitivity to interoceptive signals. Behav Neurosci 125(6):943–955

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. Gu Y, Luchsinger JA, Stern Y, Scarmeas N (2010) Mediterranean diet, inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers, and risk of Alzheimer’s disease. J Alzheimers Dis 22(2):483–492

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  20. Moher D, Shamseer L, Clarke M, Ghersi D, Liberati A, Petticrew M, Shekelle P, Stewart LA (2015) Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015 statement. Systematic Reviews 4(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/2046-4053-4-1

  21. Scale N-O, Wells G, Shea B, O’Connell D, Peterson J, Welch V, Losos M, al e (2014) The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for assessing the quality of nonrandomised studies in meta-analyses

  22. Morris MC, Evans DA, Bienias JL, Tangney CC, Bennett DA, Aggarwal N, Schneider J, Wilson RS (2003) Dietary fats and the risk of incident Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 60(2):194–200

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Laitinen M, Ngandu T, Rovio S, Helkala E-L, Uusitalo U, Viitanen M, Nissinen A, Tuomilehto J, Soininen H, Kivipelto M (2006) Fat intake at midlife and risk of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease: a population-based study. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 22(1):99–107

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. Hill E, Clifton P, Goodwill AM, Dennerstein L, Campbell S, Szoeke C (2018) Dietary patterns and β-amyloid deposition in aging Australian women. Alzheimer’s and Dementia: Translational Research and Clinical Interventions 4:535–541. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trci.2018.09.007

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  25. Pase MP, Himali JJ, Jacques PF, DeCarli C, Satizabal CL, Aparicio H, Vasan RS, Beiser AS, Seshadri S (2017) Sugary beverage intake and preclinical Alzheimer’s disease in the community. Alzheimers Dement 13(9):955–964

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  26. Gu Y, Nieves JW, Luchsinger JA, Scarmeas N (2011) Dietary inflammation factor rating system and risk of Alzheimer disease in elders. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 25(2):149–154. https://doi.org/10.1097/WAD.0b013e3181ff3c6a

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  27. Gustaw-Rothenberg K (2009) Dietary patterns associated with Alzheimer’s disease: population based study. Int J Environ Res Public Health 6(4):1335–1340. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph6041335

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  28. Scarmeas N, Stern Y, Tang MX, Mayeux R, Luchsinger JA (2006) Mediterranean diet and risk for Alzheimer’s disease. Ann Neurol 59(6):912–921

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  29. Scarmeas N, Stern Y, Mayeux R, Luchsinger JA (2006) Mediterranean diet, Alzheimer disease, and vascular mediation. Arch Neurol 63(12):1709–1717. https://doi.org/10.1001/archneur.63.12.noc60109

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  30. Scarmeas N, Luchsinger JA, Schupf N, Brickman AM, Cosentino S, Tang MX, Stern Y (2009) Physical activity, diet, and risk of Alzheimer disease. Jama 302(6):627–637

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  31. Gu Y, Luchsinger JA, Stern Y, Scarmeas N (2010) Mediterranean diet, inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers, and risk of Alzheimer’s disease. J Alzheimer Dis 22(2):483–492. https://doi.org/10.3233/jad-2010-100897

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. Gardener S, Gu Y, Rainey-Smith SR, Keogh JB, Clifton PM, Mathieson S, Taddei K, Mondal A, Ward VK, Scarmeas N (2012) Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and Alzheimer’s disease risk in an Australian population. Transl Psychiatry 2(10):e164

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  33. Mosconi L, Murray J, Tsui W, Li Y, Davies M, Williams S, Pirraglia E, Spector N, Osorio R, Glodzik L (2014) Mediterranean diet and magnetic resonance imaging-assessed brain atrophy in cognitively normal individuals at risk for Alzheimer’s disease. J Prev Alzheimers Dis 1(1):23

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  34. Morris MC, Tangney CC, Wang Y, Sacks FM, Bennett DA, Aggarwal NT (2015) MIND diet associated with reduced incidence of Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimers Dement 11(9):1007–1014

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  35. Olsson E, Karlstrom B, Kilander L, Byberg L, Cederholm T, Sjogren P (2015) Dietary patterns and cognitive dysfunction in a 12-year follow-up study of 70 year old men. J Alzheimer Dis 43(1):109–119. https://doi.org/10.3233/jad-140867

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. Vassilaki M, Aakre JA, Syrjanen JA, Mielke MM, Geda YE, Kremers WK, Machulda MM, Alhurani RE, Staubo SC, Knopman DS, Petersen RC, Lowe VJ, Jack CR, Roberts RO (2018) Mediterranean diet, its components, and amyloid imaging biomarkers. J Alzheimers Dis 64(1):281–290. https://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-171121

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  37. Calil SRB, Brucki SMD, Nitrini R, Yassuda MS (2018) Adherence to the Mediterranean and MIND diets is associated with better cognition in healthy seniors but not in MCI or AD. Clinical Nutrition ESPEN 28:201–207. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnesp.2018.08.001

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. Fernando W, Rainey-Smith SR, Gardener SL, Villemagne VL, Burnham SC, Macaulay SL, Brown BM, Gupta VB, Sohrabi HR, Weinborn M, Taddei K, Laws SM, Goozee K, Ames D, Fowler C, Maruff P, Masters CL, Salvado O, Rowe CC, Martins RN (2018) Associations of dietary protein and fiber intake with brain and blood amyloid-beta. J Alzheimer Dis 61(4):1589–1598. https://doi.org/10.3233/jad-170742

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  39. Morris MC, Evans DA, Bienias JL, Tangney CC, Bennett DA, Wilson RS, Aggarwal N, Schneider J (2003) Consumption of fish and n-3 fatty acids and risk of incident Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 60(7):940–946

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  40. Morris MC, Brockman J, Schneider JA, Wang Y, Bennett DA, Tangney CC, van de Rest O (2016) Association of seafood consumption, brain mercury level, and APOE ε4 status with brain neuropathology in older adults. Jama 315(5):489–497

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  41. Devore EE, Grodstein F, van Rooij FJ, Hofman A, Rosner B, Stampfer MJ, Witteman JC, Breteler MM (2009) Dietary intake of fish and omega-3 fatty acids in relation to long-term dementia risk. Am J Clin Nutr 90(1):170–176. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2008.27037

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  42. Ozawa M, Ninomiya T, Ohara T, Doi Y, Uchida K, Shirota T, Yonemoto K, Kitazono T, Kiyohara Y (2013) Dietary patterns and risk of dementia in an elderly Japanese population: the Hisayama Study. Am J Clin Nutr 97(5):1076–1082. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.112.045575

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  43. Liu C-H, Bu X-L, Wang J, Zhang T, Xiang Y, Shen L-L, Wang Q-H, Deng B, Wang X, Zhu C (2016) The associations between a capsaicin-rich diet and blood amyloid-β levels and cognitive function. J Alzheimers Dis 52(3):1081–1088

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  44. Mosconi L, Murray J, Davies M, Williams S, Pirraglia E, Spector N, Tsui WH, Li Y, Butler T, Osorio RS, Glodzik L, Vallabhajosula S, McHugh P, Marmar CR, de Leon MJ (2014) Nutrient intake and brain biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease in at-risk cognitively normal individuals: a cross-sectional neuroimaging pilot study. BMJ Open 4(6):e004850. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2014-004850

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  45. Liu CH, Bu XL, Wang J, Zhang T, Xiang Y, Shen LL, Wang QH, Deng B, Wang X, Zhu C, Yao XQ, Zhang M, Zhou HD, Wang YJ (2016) The associations between a capsaicin-rich diet and blood amyloid-β levels and cognitive function. J Alzheimers Dis 52(3):1081–1088. https://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-151079

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  46. Morris MC, Brockman J, Schneider JA, Wang Y, Bennett DA, Tangney CC, van de Rest O (2016) Association of seafood consumption, brain mercury level, and APOE epsilon4 status with brain neuropathology in older adults. Jama 315(5):489–497. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2015.19451

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  47. Morris MC, Evans DA, Bienias JL, Tangney CC, Bennett DA, Aggarwal N, Schneider J, Wilson RS (2003) Dietary fats and the risk of incident Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 60(2):194–200

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  48. Morris MC, Evans DA, Bienias JL, Tangney CC, Bennett DA, Wilson RS, Aggarwal N, Schneider J (2003) Consumption of fish and n-3 fatty acids and risk of incident Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 60(7):940–946. https://doi.org/10.1001/archneur.60.7.940

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  49. Laitinen MH, Ngandu T, Rovio S, Helkala EL, Uusitalo U, Viitanen M, Nissinen A, Tuomilehto J, Soininen H, Kivipelto M (2006) Fat intake at midlife and risk of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease: a population-based study. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 22(1):99–107. https://doi.org/10.1159/000093478

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  50. Scarmeas N, Stern Y, Tang MX, Mayeux R, Luchsinger JA (2006) Mediterranean diet and risk for Alzheimer’s disease. Ann Neurol 59(6):912–921. https://doi.org/10.1002/ana.20854

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  51. Luchsinger JA, Tang MX, Mayeux R (2007) Glycemic load and risk of Alzheimer’s disease. J Nutr Health Aging 11(3):238–241

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  52. Scarmeas N, Stern Y, Mayeux R, Manly JJ, Schupf N, Luchsinger JA (2009) Mediterranean diet and mild cognitive impairment. Arch Neurol 66(2):216–225. https://doi.org/10.1001/archneurol.2008.536

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  53. Gu YA, Nieves JW, Stern Y, Luchsinger JA, Scarmeas N (2010) Food combination and Alzheimer disease risk a protective diet. Arch Neurol 67(6):699–706. https://doi.org/10.1001/archneurol.2010.84

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  54. Eskelinen MH, Ngandu T, Tuomilehto J, Soininen H, Kivipelto M (2011) Midlife healthy-diet index and late-life dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Dis Extra 1(1):103–112

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  55. Gardener S, Gu Y, Rainey-Smith SR, Keogh JB, Clifton PM, Mathieson SL, Taddei K, Mondal A, Ward VK, Scarmeas N, Barnes M, Ellis KA, Head R, Masters CL, Ames D, Macaulay SL, Rowe CC, Szoeke C, Martins RN (2012) Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and Alzheimer’s disease risk in an Australian population. Transl Psychiatry 2:e164. https://doi.org/10.1038/tp.2012.91

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  56. Berti V, Murray J, Davies M, Spector N, Tsui WH, Li Y, Williams S, Pirraglia E, Vallabhajosula S, McHugh P, Pupi A, de Leon MJ, Mosconi L (2015) Nutrient patterns and brain biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease in cognitively normal individuals. J Nutr Health Aging 19(4):413–423. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12603-014-0534-0

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  57. Morris MC, Tangney CC, Wang YM, Sacks FM, Bennett DA, Aggarwal NT (2015) MIND diet associated with reduced incidence of Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimers Dement 11(9):1007–1014. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jalz.2014.11.009

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  58. Pase MP, Himali JJ, Jacques PF, DeCarli C, Satizabal CL, Aparicio H, Vasan RS, Beiser AS, Seshadri S (2017) Sugary beverage intake and preclinical Alzheimer’s disease in the community. Alzheimer Dementia 13(9):955–964. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jalz.2017.01.024

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Ylilauri MPT, Voutilainen S, Lönnroos E, Mursu J, Virtanen HEK, Koskinen TT, Salonen JT, Tuomainen TP, Virtanen JK (2017) Association of dietary cholesterol and egg intakes with the risk of incident dementia or Alzheimer disease: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. Am J Clin Nutr 105(2):476–484. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.116.146753

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  60. de Ridder D, Kroese F, Evers C, Adriaanse M, Gillebaart M (2017) Healthy diet: health impact, prevalence, correlates, and interventions. Psychol Health 32(8):907–941

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  61. Lv N, Xiao L, Ma J (2014) Dietary pattern and asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Asthma Allergy 7:105

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  62. Schwingshackl L, Hoffmann G (2015) Adherence to Mediterranean diet and risk of cancer: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Cancer Med 4(12):1933–1947

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  63. Sleiman D, Al-Badri MR, Azar ST (2015) Effect of Mediterranean diet in diabetes control and cardiovascular risk modification: a systematic review. Front Public Health 3:69

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  64. Widmer RJ, Flammer AJ, Lerman LO, Lerman A (2015) The Mediterranean diet, its components, and cardiovascular disease. Am J Med 128(3):229–238

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  65. Hardman RJ, Kennedy G, Macpherson H, Scholey AB, Pipingas A (2016) Adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet and effects on cognition in adults: a qualitative evaluation and systematic review of longitudinal and prospective trials. Front Nutr 3:22

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  66. Koloverou E, Panagiotakos D, Pitsavos C, Chrysohoou C, Georgousopoulou E, Grekas A, Christou A, Chatzigeorgiou M, Skoumas I, Tousoulis D (2016) Adherence to Mediterranean diet and 10-year incidence (2002–2012) of diabetes: correlations with inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers in the ATTICA cohort study. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 32(1):73–81

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  67. Singh B, Parsaik AK, Mielke MM, Erwin PJ, Knopman DS, Petersen RC, Roberts RO (2014) Association of mediterranean diet with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Alzheimers Dis 39(2):271–282

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  68. Rai SK, Fung TT, Lu N, Keller SF, Curhan GC, Choi HK (2017) The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, Western diet, and risk of gout in men: prospective cohort study. bmj 357:j1794

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  69. Siervo M, Lara J, Chowdhury S, Ashor A, Oggioni C, Mathers JC (2015) Effects of the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet on cardiovascular risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Nutr 113(1):1–15

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  70. Tangney CC, Li H, Wang Y, Barnes L, Schneider JA, Bennett DA, Morris MC (2014) Relation of DASH-and Mediterranean-like dietary patterns to cognitive decline in older persons. Neurology 83(16):1410–1416

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  71. Siti HN, Kamisah Y, Kamsiah J (2015) The role of oxidative stress, antioxidants and vascular inflammation in cardiovascular disease (a review). Vasc Pharmacol 71:40–56

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  72. Fiocco AJ, Shatenstein B, Ferland G, Payette H, Belleville S, Kergoat M-J, Morais JA, Greenwood CE (2012) Sodium intake and physical activity impact cognitive maintenance in older adults: the NuAge Study. Neurobiol Aging 33(4):829. e821–829. e828

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  73. Nowak KL, Fried L, Jovanovich A, Ix J, Yaffe K, You Z, Chonchol M (2018) Dietary sodium/potassium intake does not affect cognitive function or brain imaging indices. Am J Nephrol 47(1):57–65

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  74. Marcason W (2015) What are the components to the MIND diet? J Acad Nutr Diet 115(10):1744

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  75. Berendsen AM, Kang J, Feskens E, de Groot C, Grodstein F, Van de Rest O (2018) Association of long-term adherence to the mind diet with cognitive function and cognitive decline in American women. J Nutr Health Aging 22(2):222–229

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  76. Samieri C, Morris M-C, Bennett DA, Berr C, Amouyel P, Dartigues J-F, Tzourio C, Chasman DI, Grodstein F (2017) Fish intake, genetic predisposition to Alzheimer disease, and decline in global cognition and memory in 5 cohorts of older persons. Am J Epidemiol 187(5):933–940

    Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  77. Connor WE, Connor SL (2007) The importance of fish and docosahexaenoic acid in Alzheimer disease. Oxford University Press,

  78. Avraham Y, Grigoriadis N, Magen I, Poutahidis T, Vorobiav L, Zolotarev O, Ilan Y, Mechoulam R, Berry E (2009) Capsaicin affects brain function in a model of hepatic encephalopathy associated with fulminant hepatic failure in mice. Br J Pharmacol 158(3):896–906

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  79. Kang C, Wang B, Kaliannan K, Wang X, Lang H, Hui S, Huang L, Zhang Y, Zhou M, Chen M (2017) Gut microbiota mediates the protective effects of dietary capsaicin against chronic low-grade inflammation and associated obesity induced by high-fat diet. MBio 8(3):e00470–e00417

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  80. Hariharan D, Vellanki K, Kramer H (2015) The Western diet and chronic kidney disease. Curr Hypertens Rep 17(3):16. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11906-014-0529-6

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  81. Manzel A, Muller DN, Hafler DA, Erdman SE, Linker RA, Kleinewietfeld M (2014) Role of “Western diet” in inflammatory autoimmune diseases. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 14(1):404

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  CAS  Google Scholar 

  82. Hsu TM, Kanoski SE (2014) Blood-brain barrier disruption: mechanistic links between Western diet consumption and dementia. Front Aging Neurosci 6:88

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  CAS  Google Scholar 

  83. Kleemann R, Verschuren L, van Erk MJ, Nikolsky Y, Cnubben NH, Verheij ER, Smilde AK, Hendriks HF, Zadelaar S, Smith GJ (2007) Atherosclerosis and liver inflammation induced by increased dietary cholesterol intake: a combined transcriptomics and metabolomics analysis. Genome Biol 8(9):R200

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  CAS  Google Scholar 

  84. Cao D, Lu H, Lewis TL, Li L (2007) Intake of sucrose-sweetened water induces insulin resistance and exacerbates memory deficits and amyloidosis in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer disease. J Biol Chem 282(50):36275–36282

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

We appreciate the Department of Nutrition, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Shima Moradi.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Electronic supplementary material

ESM 1

(DOCX 24 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Samadi, M., Moradi, S., Moradinazar, M. et al. Dietary pattern in relation to the risk of Alzheimer’s disease: a systematic review. Neurol Sci 40, 2031–2043 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10072-019-03976-3

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10072-019-03976-3

Keywords

Navigation