Neurological Sciences

, Volume 39, Issue 6, pp 1121–1124 | Cite as

Peritoneum as an origin of epilepsy from the viewpoint of Avicenna

  • Majid Dadmehr
  • Farshad Amini-Behbahani
  • Behzad Eftekhar
  • Bagher Minaei
  • Mohsen Bahrami
History of Neurology


There are studies that show that the concepts of epilepsy have been rooted in Persian medicine; Avicenna “Ibn-e-Sina”—one of the great Persian physicians in the Islamic golden age (9th–12th century AD)—has considered some types of epilepsy with the association of the stomach, the spleen, the “Maraqq,” and the whole body which has not been reviewed properly. These organs influence on the brain and can cause epilepsy. This article presents concept of Maraqq-related epilepsy; according to Avicenna’s view, “Maraqq” is a membranous structure which is located in the abdomen (equivalent of parietal peritoneum in current nomenclature). We discuss his viewpoint about the diagnosis and treatment of Maraqq-related epilepsy with focus on herbal remedies. The concept of a relationship between the “Maraqq” and the brain is well discussed in the old Persian medicine texts; however, it seems that further studies in this area are required to clarify Avicenna’s view about the pathophysiological mechanisms, clinical manifestations, and treatment strategies.


Epilepsy Persian medicine Maraqq-related epilepsy Avicenna Maraqq 



The authors wish to thank Bahare Dadmehr for assistance in editing the manuscript. This paper is part of a PhD thesis by Dr. M. Dadmehr.

Funding information

This work was financially supported by Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia S.r.l., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Institute for Islamic and Complementary MedicineIran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.School of Persian MedicineIran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  3. 3.Student Research CommitteeIran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  4. 4.Department of Neurosurgery, Australian School of Advanced MedicineMacquarie UniversitySydneyAustralia
  5. 5.Department of Neurosurgery, Nepean HospitalUniversity of SydneySydneyAustralia
  6. 6.Department of Histology, School of MedicineTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

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