Neurological Sciences

, Volume 39, Issue 4, pp 641–645 | Cite as

Techniques of cognitive rehabilitation in patients with disorders of consciousness: a systematic review

  • Elena La Gattuta
  • Francesco Corallo
  • Viviana Lo Buono
  • Simona De Salvo
  • Fabrizia Caminiti
  • Carmela Rifici
  • Antonella Alagna
  • Francesca Arcadi
  • Alessia Bramanti
  • Silvia Marino
Review Article
  • 161 Downloads

Abstract

Acquired brain injury can produce severe impairments of alertness, cognition, behavior, and, sometimes, an impairment of consciousness. Several studies defined the criteria to distinguish the different level of disorders of consciousness (DOC) and many tools to evaluate awareness, alertness, and response to stimuli were created. The aim of this review is to assess the advanced research of rehabilitative protocols and which rehabilitative techniques are used in the care of DOC patients.

Keywords

Disorder of consciousness Rehabilitation Coma state Minimally conscious state Vegetative state 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Research involving human participants and/or animals

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was not necessary because the present study consist of a literature revision.

References

  1. 1.
    The Multi-Society Task Force Report on PVS (1994) Medical aspects of the persistent vegetative state. N Engl J Med 330(21):1499–1508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gosseries O, Vanhaudenhuyse A, Bruno M-A, Demertzi A, Schnakers C, Boly MM, Maudoux A, Moonen G, Laurey S (2011) Disorders of consciousness: coma, vegetative and minimally conscious states. In: Cvetkovic D, Cosic I (eds) States of Consciousness. The Frontiers collection. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-18047-7_2 Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Nicholas D, Schiff ND (2010) Recovery of consciousness after brain injury: a mesocircuit hypothesis. Trends Neurosci 33(1):1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Giacino JT, Ashwal S, Childs N, Cranford R, Jennett B, Katz DI, Kelly JP, Rosenberg JH, Whyte J, Zafonte RD, Zasler ND (2002) The minimally conscious state: definition and diagnostic criteria. Am Acad Neurol 58(3):349–353Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hirschberg R, Giacino JT (2011) The vegetative and minimally conscious states: diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. Neurol Clin 29(4):773–786.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2011.07.009 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Teasdale G, Jennett B (1974) Assessment of coma and impaired consciousness: a practical scale. Lancet 304(7872):81–84.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(74)91639-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lombardi F, Gatta G, Sacco S, Muratori A, Carolei A (2007) The Italian version of the coma recovery scale-revised (CRS-R). Funct Neurol 22(1):47–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Giacino JT, Kalmar K, Whyte J (2004) The JFK Coma Recovery Scale-Revised: measurement characteristics and diagnostic utility. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 85(12):2020–2029.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2004.02.033 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jennett B, Bond M (1975) Assessment of outcome after severe brain damage. Lancet 1(7905):480–484CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rappaport M, Hall KM, Hopkins K, Belleza T, Cope DN (1982) Disability Rating Scale for severe head trauma patients: coma to community. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 63(3):118–123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Magee WL, Siegert RJ, Taylor SM, Daveson BA, Lenton-Smith G (2015) Music therapy assessment tool for awareness in disorders of consciousness (MATADOC): reliability and validity of a measure to assess awareness in patients with disorders of consciousness. J Music Ther 53(1):1–26.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jmt/thv017 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gill-Thwaites H, Munday R (2004) The Sensory Modality Assessment and Rehabilitation Technique (SMART): a valid and reliable assessment for vegetative state and minimally conscious state patients. Brain Inj 18:12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Giacino TJ, Trott CT (2004) Rehabilitative management of patients with disorders of consciousness: grand rounds. J Head Trauma Rehab 19(3):254–265.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00001199-200405000-00006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Duff D (2001) Review article: altered states of consciousness, theories of recovery, and assessment following a severe traumatic brain injury. Axone 23(1):18–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kavusipur S, Rojhani Shirazi Z, Ardekani Z, Omidi S (2013) Prediction of consciousness recovery in coma after traumatic brain injury by disorder of consciousness scale (DOCS). Bull Emerg Trauma 1(2):86–89PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Polich J (2007) Updating P300: an integrative theory of P3a and P3b. Clin Neurophysiol 118(10):2128–2148.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2007.04.019 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Holeckova I, Fisher C, Giard MH, Delpuech C, Morlet D (2006) Brain responses to a subject’s own name uttered by familiar voce. Brain Res 1082(1):142–152Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cavinato M, Freo U, Ori C, Zorzi M, Tonin P, Piccione F, Merico A (2009) Post-acute P300 pre-dicts recovery of consciousness from traumatic vegetative state. Brain Inj 23(12):973–980.  https://doi.org/10.3109/02699050903373493 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cavinato M, Volpato C, Silvoni S, Sacchetto M, Merico A, Piccione F (2011) Event-related brain potential modulation in patients with severe brain damage. Clin Neurophysiol 122(4):719–724.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2010.08.024 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Davis AE, Gimenez A (2003) Cognitive-behavioral recovery in comatose patients following auditory sensory stimulation. J Neurosci Nurs 35(4):202–209, 214.  https://doi.org/10.1097/01376517-200308000-00006 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Risetti M, Formisano R, Toppi J, Lucia R, Quitadamo LR, Bianchi L, Laura Astolfi L, Febo Cincotti F, Mattia D (2013) On ERPs detection in disorders of consciousness rehabilitation. Front Human Neurosci 7:775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Castro M, Tillmann B, Luauté J, Corneyllie A, Dailler F, André-Obadia N, Perrin F (2015) Boosting cognition with music in patients with disorders of consciousness. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair 29(8):734–742.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1545968314565464 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    De Salvo S, Caminiti F, Bonanno L, De Cola MC, Corallo F, Caizzone A, Rifici C, Bramanti P, Marino S (2015) Neurophysiological assessment for evaluating residual cognition in vegetative and minimally conscious state patients: a pilot study. Funct Neurol 30(4):1–8Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lombardi F, Taricco M, De Tanti A, Telaro E, Liberati A (2002). Sensory stimulation for brain injured individuals in coma or vegetative state. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2):CD001427.  https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD001427
  25. 25.
    Abbate C, Trimarchi PD, Basile I, Mazzucchi A, Devalle G (2014) Sensory stimulation for patients with disorders of consciousness: from stimulation to rehabilitation. Front Hum Neurosci 8:616CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    O’Kelly J, James L, Palaniappan R, Taborin J, Fachner J, Magee WL (2013) Neurophysiological and behavioral responses to music therapy in vegetative and minimally conscious state. Front Human Neurosci 7:884Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Steinhoff N, Heine AM, Vogl J, Weiss K, Aschraf A, Hajek P, Schnider P, Tucek G (2015) A pilot study into the effects of music therapy on different areas of the brain of individuals with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome. Front Neurosci 9:291CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dolce G, Lucca LF, Quintieri M, Leto E, Rogano S, Riganello F, Pignolo L (2012) Neurorehabilitation for severe disorder of consciousness: the S. Anna—RAN operational model. J Rehabil Med 44(6):512–516.  https://doi.org/10.2340/16501977-0968 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Klein AM, Howell K, Straube A, Pfefferkorn T, Bender A (2013) Rehabilitation outcome of patients with severe and prolonged disorders of consciousness after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Clin Neurol Neurosurg 115(10):2136–2141.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2013.08.004 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia S.r.l., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elena La Gattuta
    • 1
  • Francesco Corallo
    • 1
  • Viviana Lo Buono
    • 1
  • Simona De Salvo
    • 1
  • Fabrizia Caminiti
    • 1
  • Carmela Rifici
    • 1
  • Antonella Alagna
    • 1
  • Francesca Arcadi
    • 1
  • Alessia Bramanti
    • 1
  • Silvia Marino
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.IRCCS Centro Neurolesi Bonino PulejoMessinaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences and Morphological and Functional ImagingUniversity of MessinaMessinaItaly

Personalised recommendations