The predictive accuracy of the black hole sign and the spot sign for hematoma expansion in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage
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In patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH), hematoma expansion (HE) is associated with poor outcome. Spot sign and black hole sign are neuroimaging predictors for HE. This study was aimed to compare the predictive value of two signs for HE. Within 6 h after onset of sICH, patients were screened for the computed tomography angiography spot sign and the non-contrast computed tomography black hole sign. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of two signs for HE prediction were calculated. The accuracy of two signs in predicting HE was analyzed by receiver-operator analysis. A total of 129 patients were included in this study. Spot sign was identified in 30 (23.3%) patients and black hole sign in 29 (22.5%) patients, respectively. Of 32 patients with HE, spot sign was observed in 19 (59.4%) and black hole sign was found in 14 (43.8%). The occurrence of black hole sign was significantly associated with spot sign (P < 0.001). The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of spot sign for predicting HE were 59.38, 88.66, 63.33, and 86.87% respectively. In contrast, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of black hole sign for predicting HE were 43.75, 84.54, 48.28, and 82.00%, respectively. The area under the curve was 0.740 for spot sign and 0.641 for black hole sign. (P = 0.228) Both spot sign and black hole sign appeared to have good predictive value for HE, and spot sign seemed to be a better predictor.
KeywordsBlack hole sign Hematoma expansion Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage Spot sign
Our great acknowledgement goes to the patients included in this study to make this study possible.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
For this type of study, formal consent is not required.
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