Neurological Sciences

, Volume 38, Issue 3, pp 425–431 | Cite as

Serum glutathione peroxidase, xanthine oxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities and malondialdehyde levels in patients with Parkinson’s disease

  • Burcu Gökçe ÇokalEmail author
  • Mustafa Yurtdaş
  • Selda Keskin Güler
  • Hafize Nalan Güneş
  • Ceyla Ataç Uçar
  • Bilal Aytaç
  • Zahide Esra Durak
  • Tahir Kurtuluş Yoldaş
  • İlker Durak
  • Hikmet Can Çubukçu
Original Article


Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Oxidative stress has been hypothesized to play a major role in the development of PD in various studies. This study assessed to investigate oxidative and anti-oxidative status in PD patients. We evaluated oxidant/antioxidant status by measuring serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, xanthine oxidase (XO) activities, and activities of antioxidant enzymes, namely, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). The study included 29 patients with PD and 32 healthy subjects as controls. Comparison of oxidative parameters in the patient and control groups revealed significantly higher GSH-Px and XO activities in the patient group. Serum MDA and SOD activities in PD patients were not significantly different from the controls. MDA was negatively correlated with duration of the PD and positively with age of onset. There was a negative correlation between SOD and Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y) stage. According to these results, we suggest that oxidative stress may contribute to the development of PD.


Parkinson’s disease Oxidative stress Glutathione peroxidase Xanthine oxidase Superoxide dismutase Malondialdehyde 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed on human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants who included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Burcu Gökçe Çokal
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mustafa Yurtdaş
    • 1
  • Selda Keskin Güler
    • 1
  • Hafize Nalan Güneş
    • 1
  • Ceyla Ataç Uçar
    • 1
  • Bilal Aytaç
    • 2
  • Zahide Esra Durak
    • 3
  • Tahir Kurtuluş Yoldaş
    • 1
  • İlker Durak
    • 4
  • Hikmet Can Çubukçu
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of NeurologyAnkara Education and Research HospitalAnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.Turkish Ministry of HealthDirectorate of Health ServicesAnkaraTurkey
  3. 3.The Laboratory of Turkish Public Health InstitutionAnkaraTurkey
  4. 4.Department of Medical BiochemistryAnkara University Faculty of MedicineAnkaraTurkey

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