Cognitive deficits occur in most stroke patients and cognitive impairment is an important predictor of adverse long term outcome. However, current screening measures, such as the Mini Mental State Examination or the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, do not provide information tuned for evaluating the impact of cognitive impairment in the early phase after stroke. The Oxford Cognitive Screen (OCS) represents an important new development in this regard. The OCS is now available for assessment of Italian individuals and the aim of this study is to standardize the OCS on a large sample of healthy Italian participants stratified for age, gender and education level. Results confirmed the influence of these factors in several of the OCS tasks. Age-, education- and gender-adjusted norms are provided for the ten sub-tests of the test. The availability of normative data represents an important prerequite for the reliable use of OCS with stroke patients.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Nys GM, van Zandvoort MJ, de Kort PL, Jansen BP, de Haan EH, Kappelle LJ (2007) Cognitive disorders in acute stroke: prevalence and clinical determinants. Cerebrovasc Dis 23:408–416. doi:10.1159/000101464
Rasquin SM, Verhey FR, Lousberg R, Lodder J (2005) Cognitive performance after first ever stroke related to progression of vascular brain damage: a 2 year follow up CT scan study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatr 76:1075–1079. doi:10.1136/jnnp.2004.055541
Tatemichi TK, Desmond DW, Stern Y, Paik M, Sano M, Bagiella E (1994) Cognitive impairment after stroke: frequency, patterns, and relationship to functional abilities. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatr 57(2):202–207
Bickerton WL, Riddoch MJ, Samson D, Balani AB, Mistry B, Humphreys GW (2012) Systematic assessment of apraxia and functional predictions from the Birmingham Cognitive Screen. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatr 83:513–521
Bickerton WL, Samson D, Williamson J, Humphreys GW (2011) Separating forms of neglect using the Apples Test: validation and functional prediction in chronic and acute stroke. Neuropsychology 25:567–580
Edwards DF, Hahn MG, Baum CM, Perlmutter MS, Sheedy C, Dromerick AW (2006) Screening patients with stroke for rehabilitation needs: validation of the post-stroke rehabilitation guidelines. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 20:42–48
Humphreys GW, Bickerton WL, Samson D, Riddoch MJ (2012) BCoS Cognitive Screen. Psychology Press, Hove
Rasquin SM, Welter J, van Heugten CM (2013) Course of cognitive functioning during stroke rehabilitation. Neuropsychol Rehabil. 23:811–823
Nys GM, van Zandvoort MJ, de Kort PL, van der Worp HB, Jansen BP, Algra A et al (2005) The prognostic value of domain-specific cognitive abilities in acute first-ever stroke. Neurology 64:821–827
Clarke P, Marshall V, Black SE, Colantonio A (2002) Well-being after stroke in Canadian seniors: findings from the Canadian Study of Health and Ageing. Stroke 33:1016–1021
Hochstenbach JB, Anderson PG, van Limbeek J, Mulder TT (2001) Is there a relation between neuropsychologic variables and quality of life after stroke? Arch Phys Med Rehabil 82:1360–1366
Hofgren C, Björkdahl A, Esbjörnsson E, Sunnerhagen KS (2007) Recovery after stroke: cognition, ADL function and return to work. Acta Neurol Scand 115:73–80
Hommel M, Miguel ST, Naegele B, Gonnet N, Jaillard A (2009) Cognitive determinants of social functioning after a first ever mild to moderate stroke at vocational age. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatr 80:876–880. doi:10.1136/jnnp.2008.169672
Pedersen PM, Jorgensen HS, Nakavama H et al (1996) General cognitive function in acute stroke: the Copenhagen Stroke Study. J Neuro Rehabil 10:153–158
Zinn S, Dudley TK, Bosworth HB, Hoenig HM, Duncan PW, Horner RD (2004) The effect of poststroke cognitive impairment on rehabilitation process and functional out- come. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 85:1084–1090. doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2003.10.022
Scholte op Reimer WJ, de Haan RJ, Rijnders PT, Limburg M, van den Bos GA (1998) The burden of caregiving in partners of long-term stroke survivors. Stroke 29(8):1605–1611. doi:10.1161/01.STR.29.8.1605
Hachinski V, Iadecola C, Petersen RC, Breteler MM, Nyenhuis DL, Black SE, Powers WJ, DeCarli C, Merino JG, Kalaria RN, Vinters HV, Holtzman DM, Rosenberg GA, Wallin A, Dichgans M, Marler JR, Leblanc GG (2006) National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke-Canadian Stroke Network vascular cognitive impairment harmonization standards. Stroke 37:2220–2241
Miceli G, Bottini G, Cerri C et al. (2012) Complicanze psicocognitive dell’ictus. In: Pierrel Research Italy SpA (ed) SPREAD stroke prevention and educational awareness diffusion. Ictus cerebrale: linee guida italiane di prevenzione e trattamento, 7th edn. Pierrel Research Italy, Milan, pp 100–111
Miller EL, Murray L, Richards L, Zorowitz RD, Bakas T, Clark P, American Heart Association on Cardiovascular Nursing and the Stroke Council et al (2010) Comprehensive overview of nursing and interdisciplinary rehabilitation care of the stroke patient: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Stroke 41:2402–2448. doi:10.1161/STR.0b013e3181e7512b
Dong Y, Venketasubramanian N, Chan BP, Sharma VK, Slavin MJ, Collinson SL, Sachdev P, Chan YH, Chen CL (2012) Brief screening tests during acute admission in patients with mild stroke are predictive of vascular cognitive impairment 3–6 months after stroke. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatr 83:580–585
van Zandvoort MJ, Kessels RP, Nys GM, de Haan EH, Kappelle LJ (2005) Early neuropsychological evaluation in patients with ischaemic stroke provides valid information. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 107:385–392. doi:10.1016/j.clineuro.2004.10.012
van der Zwaluw CS, Valentijn SA, Nieuwenhuis-Mark R, Rasquin SM (2011) van Heugten CM Cognitive functioning in the acute phase poststroke: a predictor of discharge destination? J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 20:549–555. doi:10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2010.03.009
Nys GM, van Zandvoort MJ, de Kort PL, Jansen BP, Kappelle LJ, de Haan EH (2005) Restrictions of the Mini-Mental State Examination in acute stroke. Arch Clin Neuropsychol 20:623–629. doi:10.1016/j.acn.2005.04.001
Nasreddine ZS, Phillips NA, Bédirian V, Charbonneau S, Whitehead V, Collin I et al (2005) The Montreal Cognitive Assessment, MoCA: a brief screening tool for mild cognitive impairment. J Am Geriatr Soc 53:695–699. doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2005.53221.x
Pasi M, Salvadori E, Poggesi A, Inzitari D, Pantoni L (2013) Factors predicting the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) applicability and performances in a stroke unit. J Neurol 260:1518–1526. doi:10.1007/s00415-012-6819-5
Demeyere N, Riddoch MJ, Slavkova ED, Bickerton WL, Humphreys GW (2015) The Oxford Cognitive Screen (OCS): validation of a stroke-specific short cognitive screening tool. Psychol Assess 27:883–894
Magni E, Binetti G, Bianchetti A, Rozzini R, Trabucchi M (1996) Mini-Mental State Examination: a normative study in Italian elderly population. Eur J Neurol 3:198–202. doi:10.1111/j.1468-1331.1996.tb00423.x
Ramrattan RS, Wolfs RC, Panda-Jonas S, Jonas JB, Bakker D, Pols HA et al (2001) Prevalence and causes of visual field loss in the elderly and associations with impairment in daily functioning: the Rotterdam Study. Arch Ophthalmol 119:1788–1794. doi:10.1001/archopht.119.12.1788
Burani C, Arduino LS (2004) Stress regularity or consistency? Reading aloud Italian polysyllables with different stress patterns. Brain Lang 90:318–325
Bertinetto PM, Burani C, Laudanna A, Marconi C, Ratti D, Rolando C, et al (2005) CoLFIS (Corpus e Lessico di Frequenza dell’Italiano Scritto) [Corpus and Frequency Lexicon of Written Italian]. http://www.istc.cnr.it/grouppage/databases. Accessed 3 June 2016
Chechlacz M, Rotshtein P, Roberts KL, Bickerton WL, Lau JK, Humphreys GW (2012) The prognosis of allocentric and egocentric neglect: evidence from clinical scans. PLoS One 7:e47821
Burani C, Barca L, Ellis AW (2006) Orthographic complexity and word naming in Italian: some words are more transparent than others. Psychon Bull Rev 13:346–352. doi:10.3758/BF03193855
We would like to thank late Professor Glyn Humphreys for his inspiration.
The Italian OCS Group: L. Abbruzzese, Rehabilitation Center, Terranuova Bracciolini, Arezzo, Italy; C. Fonte, Department of Neuroscience Biomedicine and Movement, Neuromotor and Cognitive Rehabilitation Research Center, University of Verona, Verona, Italy; G. V. La Monica, Department of Neuroscience Biomedicine and Movement, Neuromotor and Cognitive Rehabilitation Research Center, University of Verona, Verona, Italy; F. Meneghello, Department Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, Foundation Hospital San Camillo, Venice, Italy; M. Pallotta, Department of Psychology, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy; Neuropsychology Centre, IRCCS Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy; F. Pirrotta, Rehabilitation Center, Terranuova Bracciolini, Arezzo, Italy; N. Smania, Department of Neuroscience Biomedicine and Movement, Neuromotor and Cognitive Rehabilitation Research Center, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
The members of the Italian OCS Group are listed in the Acknowledgments.
About this article
Cite this article
Mancuso, M., Varalta, V., Sardella, L. et al. Italian normative data for a stroke specific cognitive screening tool: the Oxford Cognitive Screen (OCS). Neurol Sci 37, 1713–1721 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10072-016-2650-6
- Cognitive assessment
- Oxford Cognitive Screen
- Normative data