Neurological Sciences

, Volume 36, Issue 8, pp 1403–1410 | Cite as

Transcranial sonography and the pocket smell test in the differential diagnosis between parkinson’s disease and essential tremor

  • Ivanka Štenc BradvicaEmail author
  • Ivan Mihaljević
  • Silva Butković-Soldo
  • Dragutin Kadojić
  • Marina Titlić
  • Mario Bradvica
  • Kristina Kralik
Original Article


The aim of this study was to determine the specificity and sensitivity of transcranial sonography (TCS) and the Pocket Smell Test (PST) in differing Parkinson’s disease from essential tremor. The results were compared with the dopamin transporter scan (DaTSCAN) findings. Based on the DaTSCAN finding we formed a group of patients with essential tremor (51 patients) and a group with the Parkinson’s disease (59 patients). The control group consisted of 26 healthy one. To evaluate the olfactory dysfunction the PST was used, whereas by TCS the substantia nigra hyperechogenicity was marked. The sensitivity and specificity of each diagnostic method was statistically calculated. In confirming Parkinson’s disease the specificity of TCS was 88.2 % and the sensitivity 94.9 %. The specificity of PST was 80.4 % whereas the sensitivity was 74.6 %. TCS and PST should be performed to evaluate which patients need to be examined by DaTSCAN.


Transcranial sonography Olfactory dysfunction DaTSCAN Parkinsonism 


Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical standard statement

This study has been approved by Ethical committee of University Hospital Center in Osijek and has, therefore, been performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments.

Informed consent statement

All patients gave their informed consent prior to their inclusion in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ivanka Štenc Bradvica
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ivan Mihaljević
    • 2
  • Silva Butković-Soldo
    • 1
  • Dragutin Kadojić
    • 1
  • Marina Titlić
    • 3
  • Mario Bradvica
    • 4
  • Kristina Kralik
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Neurology, Faculty of MedicineOsijek University Hospital, “Josip Juraj Strossmayer” University of OsijekOsijekCroatia
  2. 2.Department of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of MedicineOsijek University Hospital, “Josip Juraj Strossmayer” University of OsijekOsijekCroatia
  3. 3.Department of Neurology, Faculty of MedicineSplit University Hospital, University of SplitSplitCroatia
  4. 4.Department of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Faculty of MedicineOsijek University Hospital, “Josip Juraj Strossmayer” University of OsijekOsijekCroatia
  5. 5.Faculty of Medicine“Josip Juraj Strossmayer” University of OsijekOsijekCroatia

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