Transcranial sonography and the pocket smell test in the differential diagnosis between parkinson’s disease and essential tremor
- 301 Downloads
The aim of this study was to determine the specificity and sensitivity of transcranial sonography (TCS) and the Pocket Smell Test (PST) in differing Parkinson’s disease from essential tremor. The results were compared with the dopamin transporter scan (DaTSCAN) findings. Based on the DaTSCAN finding we formed a group of patients with essential tremor (51 patients) and a group with the Parkinson’s disease (59 patients). The control group consisted of 26 healthy one. To evaluate the olfactory dysfunction the PST was used, whereas by TCS the substantia nigra hyperechogenicity was marked. The sensitivity and specificity of each diagnostic method was statistically calculated. In confirming Parkinson’s disease the specificity of TCS was 88.2 % and the sensitivity 94.9 %. The specificity of PST was 80.4 % whereas the sensitivity was 74.6 %. TCS and PST should be performed to evaluate which patients need to be examined by DaTSCAN.
KeywordsTranscranial sonography Olfactory dysfunction DaTSCAN Parkinsonism
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Ethical standard statement
This study has been approved by Ethical committee of University Hospital Center in Osijek and has, therefore, been performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments.
Informed consent statement
All patients gave their informed consent prior to their inclusion in the study.
- 5.Berardelli A, Wenning GK, Antonini A, Berg D, Bloem BR, Bonifati V, Brooks D, Burn DJ, Colosimo C, Fanciulli A, Ferreira J, Gasser T, Grandas F, Kanovsky P, Kostic V, Kulisevsky J, Oertel W, Poewe W, Reese JP, Relja M, Ruzicka E, Schrag A, Seppi K, Taba P, Vidailhet M (2013) EFNS/MDS-ES/ENS [corrected] recommendations for the diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease. Eur J Neurol 20(1):16–34. doi: 10.1111/ene.12022 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 9.Gaenslen A, Unmuth B, Godau J, Liepelt I, Di Santo A, Schweitzer KJ, Gasser T, Machulla HJ, Reimold M, Marek K, Berg D (2008) The specificity and sensitivity of transcranial ultrasound in the differential diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease: a prospective blinded study. Lancet Neurol 7(5):417–424. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(08)70067-X PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 12.Vlaar AM, de Nijs T, van Kroonenburgh MJ, Mess WH, Winogrodzka A, Tromp SC, Weber WE (2008) The predictive value of transcranial duplex sonography for the clinical diagnosis in undiagnosed parkinsonian syndromes: comparison with SPECT scans. BMC Neurol 8:42. doi: 10.1186/1471-2377-8-42 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 27.McKinnon J, Evidente V, Driver-Dunckley E, Premkumar A, Hentz J, Shill H, Sabbagh M, Caviness J, Connor D, Adler C (2010) Olfaction in the elderly: a cross-sectional analysis comparing Parkinson’s disease with controls and other disorders. Int J Neurosci 120(1):36–39. doi: 10.3109/00207450903428954 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 30.Doty RL (1994) Studies of olfactory dysfunction in major neurological disorders. Adv Biosci 93:593–602Google Scholar
- 38.Chen W, Tan YY, Hu YY, Zhan WW, Wu L, Lou Y, Wang X, Zhou Y, Huang P, Gao Y, Xiao Q, Chen SD (2012) Combination of olfactory test and substantia nigra transcranial sonopraphy in the differential diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease: a pilot study from China. Transl Neurodegener 1(1):25. doi: 10.1186/2047-9158-1-25 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 39.Busse K, Heilmann R, Kleinschmidt S, Abu-Mugheisib M, Hoppner J, Wunderlich C, Gemende I, Kaulitz L, Wolters A, Benecke R, Walter U (2012) Value of combined midbrain sonography, olfactory and motor function assessment in the differential diagnosis of early Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 83(4):441–447. doi: 10.1136/jnnp-2011-301719 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar