Azadirachta indica mitigates behavioral impairments, oxidative damage, histological alterations and apoptosis in focal cerebral ischemia–reperfusion model of rats
- 373 Downloads
Azadirachta indica Linn. (Meliaceae) has been used from ancient times as a remedy for various ailments. The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties of A. indica seed extract (ASE) in transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rat model. Antioxidant potential of ASE was determined in vitro. Further, ASE was evaluated against neurological deficits, histological alterations (TTC, CV and H&E) and oxidative damage (TBARS, GSH and nitrite) in MCAO rats. Moreover, caspase-3 and -9 were analyzed to evaluate the anti-apoptotic activity of ASE. ASE has shown potent in vitro reducing power (126.2 mg AsAE/g extract) and free radical scavenging activities (DPPH 171.0 and NO 176.0 μg/ml). Furthermore, ASE inhibited oxidative stress and decreased the activities of caspase-3 (26.7 %, p < 0.05) and caspase-9 (31.2 %, p < 0.01) thus, reduced neuronal loss in MCAO rats. Our data revealed that ASE has potent antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties, and may be explored for its active constituents against neurodegenerative diseases.
KeywordsAntioxidant Azadirachta indica Behavioral deficit Caspase-3 Oxidative stress
The author (K.V.) sincerely acknowledges UGC, Govt. of India for providing financial support. The technical assistance by Mr. Dharamvir Singh is highly appreciated.
Conflict of interest
We declare that no author has any conflict of interest.
- 3.Kelly PJ, Morrow JD, Ning M, Koroshetz W, Lo EH, Terry E, Milne GL, Hubbard J, Lee H, Stevenson E, Lederer M, Furie KL (2008) Oxidative stress and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in acute ischemic stroke: the biomarker evaluation for antioxidant therapies in stroke (BEAT-Stroke) study. Stroke 39:100–104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 7.Biswas K, Chattopadhyay I, Banerjee RK, Bandyopadhyay U (2002) Biological activities and medicinal properties of neem (Azadirachta indica). Curr Sci 82:1336–1345Google Scholar
- 9.Bhowmik D, Yadav J, Tripathi KK, Kumar KPS (2010) Herbal remedies of Azadirachta indica and its medicinal application. J Chem Pharm Res 2:62–72Google Scholar
- 17.Vaibhav K, Shrivastava P, Javed H, Khan A, Ahmed ME, Tabassum R, Khan MM, Khuwaja G, Islam F, Saeed Siddiqui M, Safhi MM, Islam F (2012) Piperine suppresses cerebral ischemia-reperfusion-induced inflammation through the repression of COX-2, NOS-2, and NF-κB in middle cerebral artery occlusion rat model. Mol Cell Biochem 367:73–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 24.Noh KS, Yang MO, Cho EJ (2002) Nitrite scavenging effect of Umbelligeraeceae. Korean J Food Cookery Sci 18:8–12Google Scholar
- 25.Lee YR, Woo KS, Kim KJ, Son JR, Jeong HS (2007) Antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts from germinated specialty rough rice. Food Sci Biotechnol 16:765–770Google Scholar
- 31.Ghimeray AK, Jin C, Ghimire BK, Cho DH (2009) Antioxidant activity and quantitative estimation of azadirachtin and nimbin in Azadirachta indica A. Juss grown in foothills of Nepal. Afr J Biotechnol 8:3084–3091Google Scholar
- 35.Kumar PS, Mishra D, Ghosh G, Panda CS (2010) Biological action and medicinal properties of various constituent of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) an overview. Ann Biol Res 1:24–34Google Scholar