Neurological Sciences

, Volume 34, Issue 8, pp 1321–1330 | Cite as

Azadirachta indica mitigates behavioral impairments, oxidative damage, histological alterations and apoptosis in focal cerebral ischemia–reperfusion model of rats

  • Kumar Vaibhav
  • Pallavi Shrivastava
  • Andleeb Khan
  • Hayate Javed
  • Rizwana Tabassum
  • Md. Ejaz Ahmed
  • M. Badruzzaman Khan
  • Mohd. Moshahid Khan
  • Farah Islam
  • Sayeed Ahmad
  • M. Saeed Siddiqui
  • Mohammed M. Safhi
  • Fakhrul IslamEmail author
Original Article


Azadirachta indica Linn. (Meliaceae) has been used from ancient times as a remedy for various ailments. The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties of A. indica seed extract (ASE) in transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rat model. Antioxidant potential of ASE was determined in vitro. Further, ASE was evaluated against neurological deficits, histological alterations (TTC, CV and H&E) and oxidative damage (TBARS, GSH and nitrite) in MCAO rats. Moreover, caspase-3 and -9 were analyzed to evaluate the anti-apoptotic activity of ASE. ASE has shown potent in vitro reducing power (126.2 mg AsAE/g extract) and free radical scavenging activities (DPPH 171.0 and NO 176.0 μg/ml). Furthermore, ASE inhibited oxidative stress and decreased the activities of caspase-3 (26.7 %, p < 0.05) and caspase-9 (31.2 %, p < 0.01) thus, reduced neuronal loss in MCAO rats. Our data revealed that ASE has potent antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties, and may be explored for its active constituents against neurodegenerative diseases.


Antioxidant Azadirachta indica Behavioral deficit Caspase-3 Oxidative stress 



The author (K.V.) sincerely acknowledges UGC, Govt. of India for providing financial support. The technical assistance by Mr. Dharamvir Singh is highly appreciated.

Conflict of interest

We declare that no author has any conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kumar Vaibhav
    • 1
  • Pallavi Shrivastava
    • 1
    • 5
  • Andleeb Khan
    • 1
  • Hayate Javed
    • 1
  • Rizwana Tabassum
    • 1
  • Md. Ejaz Ahmed
    • 1
  • M. Badruzzaman Khan
    • 1
    • 6
  • Mohd. Moshahid Khan
    • 1
    • 7
  • Farah Islam
    • 2
  • Sayeed Ahmad
    • 3
  • M. Saeed Siddiqui
    • 1
  • Mohammed M. Safhi
    • 4
  • Fakhrul Islam
    • 1
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Neurotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Medical Elementology and Toxicology (DST-FIST and UGC-SAP-DRS funded Department)Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University)New DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of PharmacyJamia Hamdard (Hamdard University)New DelhiIndia
  3. 3.Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Faculty of PharmacyJamia Hamdard (Hamdard University)New DelhiIndia
  4. 4.Neuroscience and Toxicology Unit, Faculty of PharmacyJazan UniversityJazanKingdom of Saudi Arabia
  5. 5.Department NeurologyRobert Wood Johnson Medical School, UMDNJPiscatawayUSA
  6. 6.Center for Molecular ChaperoneGeorgia Health Sciences UniversityAugustaUSA
  7. 7.Department of Internal MedicineCarver College of Medicine, University of IowaIowa CityUSA

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