Neurological Sciences

, Volume 34, Issue 7, pp 1117–1124 | Cite as

Analysis of emotionality and locomotion in radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation exposed rats

  • Sareesh Naduvil NarayananEmail author
  • Raju Suresh Kumar
  • Jaijesh Paval
  • Vivekananda Kedage
  • M. Shankaranarayana Bhat
  • Satheesha Nayak
  • P. Gopalakrishna Bhat
Original Article


In the current study the modulatory role of mobile phone radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) on emotionality and locomotion was evaluated in adolescent rats. Male albino Wistar rats (6–8 weeks old) were randomly assigned into the following groups having 12 animals in each group. Group I (Control): they remained in the home cage throughout the experimental period. Group II (Sham exposed): they were exposed to mobile phone in switch-off mode for 28 days, and Group III (RF-EMR exposed): they were exposed to RF-EMR (900 MHz) from an active GSM (Global system for mobile communications) mobile phone with a peak power density of 146.60 μW/cm2 for 28 days. On 29th day, the animals were tested for emotionality and locomotion. Elevated plus maze (EPM) test revealed that, percentage of entries into the open arm, percentage of time spent on the open arm and distance travelled on the open arm were significantly reduced in the RF-EMR exposed rats. Rearing frequency and grooming frequency were also decreased in the RF-EMR exposed rats. Defecation boli count during the EPM test was more with the RF-EMR group. No statistically significant difference was found in total distance travelled, total arm entries, percentage of closed arm entries and parallelism index in the RF-EMR exposed rats compared to controls. Results indicate that mobile phone radiation could affect the emotionality of rats without affecting the general locomotion.


Mobile phone Brain Emotionality Locomotion 



The authors would like to thank the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) for financially supporting this research project.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sareesh Naduvil Narayanan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Raju Suresh Kumar
    • 1
  • Jaijesh Paval
    • 2
    • 6
  • Vivekananda Kedage
    • 3
    • 7
  • M. Shankaranarayana Bhat
    • 4
  • Satheesha Nayak
    • 2
  • P. Gopalakrishna Bhat
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Physiology, Melaka Manipal Medical College (Manipal Campus)Manipal UniversityManipalIndia
  2. 2.Department of Anatomy, Melaka Manipal Medical College (Manipal Campus)Manipal UniversityManipalIndia
  3. 3.Department of Biochemistry, Melaka Manipal Medical College (Manipal Campus)Manipal UniversityManipalIndia
  4. 4.Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Manipal Institute of TechnologyManipal UniversityManipalIndia
  5. 5.Division of Biotechnology, Manipal Life Sciences CentreManipal UniversityManipalIndia
  6. 6.Department of AnatomyAcademy of Medical EducationKannurIndia
  7. 7.Department of Molecular and Cellular BiochemistryIndiana UniversityBloomingtonUSA

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