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Premenstrual syndrome and migraine

Abstract

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) includes a wide variety of physical, psychological, and cognitive symptoms that occur recurrently and cyclically during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle and disappear soon after the onset of menstruation. Headache, often of migrainous type, is one of physical symptoms often reported in the diagnostic criteria for PMS. Menstrual migraine (MM) is a particular subtype of migraine occurring within the 2 days before and the 3 days after the onset of menses. According to this definition, therefore, some attacks of MM certainly occur in conjunction with the period of maximum exacerbation of PMS symptoms. The relationship between MM and PMS has been investigated through diary-based studies which have confirmed the possible correlation between these two conditions. In this paper we provide indications for the treatment of MM, making particular reference to those therapies that may be useful in the treatment of PMS symptoms. Even if triptans are the gold standard for the acute treatment, if symptomatic treatment is not sufficient one can resort to a short-term perimenstrual prophylaxis. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been demonstrated effective in MM prophylaxis. Among natural products there is some evidence of efficacy for magnesium, phytoestrogens, and ginkgolide B. Finally, also a combined oral contraceptive containing drospirenone, taken continuously for 168 days, has shown promising results.

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Abbreviations

COC:

Combined oral contraceptive

DSM:

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

MDQ:

Menstrual Distress Questionnaire

Mg:

Magnesium

MM:

Menstrual migraine

NSAIDs:

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

PMDD:

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder

PMS:

Premenstrual syndrome

RCT:

Randomized controlled trial

TTH:

Tension-type headache

WHO:

World Health Organization

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Correspondence to Gianni Allais.

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Allais, G., Castagnoli Gabellari, I., Burzio, C. et al. Premenstrual syndrome and migraine. Neurol Sci 33, 111–115 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10072-012-1054-5

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Keywords

  • Menstrual migraine
  • Premenstrual disphoric disorder
  • Premenstrual syndrome