Cranial neuralgias: from physiopathology to pharmacological treatment

Abstract

Cranial neuralgias are paroxysmal painful disorders of the head characterised by some shared features such as unilaterality of symptoms, transience and recurrence of attacks, superficial and “shock-like” quality of pain and the presence of triggering factors. Although rare, these disorders must be promptly recognised as they harbour a relatively high risk for underlying compressive or inflammatory disease. Nevertheless, misdiagnosis is frequent. Trigeminal and glossopharyngeal neuralgias are sustained in most cases by a neurovascular conflict in the posterior fossa resulting in a hyperexcitability state of the trigeminal circuitry. If the aetiology of trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and other typical neuralgias must be brought back to the peripheral injury, their pathogenesis could involve central allodynic mechanisms, which, in patients with inter-critical pain, also engage the nociceptive neurons at the thalamic-cortical level. Currently available medical treatments for TN and other cranial neuralgias are reviewed.

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Correspondence to Roberto De Simone.

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De Simone, R., Ranieri, A., Bilo, L. et al. Cranial neuralgias: from physiopathology to pharmacological treatment. Neurol Sci 29, 69 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10072-008-0892-7

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Keywords

  • Cranial neuralgias
  • Trigeminal neuralgia
  • Glossopharyngeal neuralgia
  • Physiopathology
  • Treatment
  • Review