Wayfinding in a three-dimensional (3D) environment is intricate, and surface-bounded animals may overcome this complexity by breaking it down into horizontal layers along with the vertical location of each layer. Here, we examined how rats explored a layered pyramid placed in a large open field. We found that exploration presented a hierarchical (or fractal) shape of three types of roundtrips: (1) from the primary home-base to the open-field floor; (2) from the floor up and down the pyramid levels; and (3) from local home-base on each pyramid level. Ascent was slow and interrupted, whereas descent was fast. This difference was a result of level altitude, remaining after data were normalized proportionally to level area. In contrast, the time spent and the distance traveled on each level were dependent on level area, not on level altitude. This structure of spatial behavior accords with multilevel exploration, presenting a relatively independent exploration of each level. The vertical dimension in this experiment thus did not alter the typical spatiotemporal behavior, and the 3D environment was explored by application of the same spatiotemporal approach as that of a horizontal open field. We suggest that this lack of alteration is due to the horizontal posture of the animal’s head and trunk during progression on the pyramid. This behavior also seems to fit the bicoding hypothesis, in which the vertical information is virtually contextual (non-metric), and so, when the rat progresses to a new level, it explores it as a newly accessed horizontal floor area.
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This study is dedicated to the memory of Daniel Serruya, who was my first graduate student 30 years ago. Daniel, who published his study on the rock hyrax in 1996, was not only my student, but also became a much loved family friend (DE). We are grateful to Ms. Pazit Zadicario and Roi Gerstel for their help in testing and in data acquisition and analysis, and to Ms. Naomi Paz for language editing. The study was supported by a TAU Vice-President’s internal grant for research encouragement # 0604313192 to DE.
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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The experiments and maintenance conditions for the rats were carried out under the regulations and approval of the Institutional Committee for Animal Experimentation at Tel-Aviv University (permit 04-19-009).
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Normalized data in ascending compared to descending the pyramid levels
Data were normalized by taking the area of the first level as one unit, and adjusting the time spent or distance traveled on each level according to the proportion between the area of that level and the area of the first level. For the normalized time spent on a level before ascent and descent, a two-way repeated-measure ANOVA revealed that there was no significant difference between levels (F3,36 = 0.22; p > 0.05). There was a significant difference between time spent on a level when ascending and the time spent on the same level when descending (F1,36 = 6.65; p = 0.014). There was also an interaction between the time on level and ascent/descent time (F3,36 = 3.11; p = 0.040). For the normalized data of the distance traveled on the levels before ascending vs. before descending, a two-way repeated-measure ANOVA revealed no significant effect between distance traveled on the levels (F3,36 = 1.48; p > 0.05), but a significant difference between the distance traveled in ascending compared to descending (F1,36 = 14.6; p = 0.0005), and an interaction between distance traveled on a level and distance traveled in ascending vs. descending (F3,36 = 4.35; p = 0.0103) (see Tables 1 and 2).
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Hagbi, Z., Dorfman, A., Blumenfeld-Lieberthal, E. et al. “It’s all in their head”: hierarchical exploration of a three-dimensional layered pyramid in rats. Anim Cogn 23, 277–288 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10071-019-01332-8
- Open field
- Quasiplanar model