Skip to main content

Table 4 Carry-initiating behaviours, i.e. types of (a) gestures and (b) actions, vocalisations and multi-modal combinations, produced by chimpanzee infants of both sites (Kanyawara [K]: N = 7; Taï South [T]: N = 6) in respective study periods

From: Should I stay or should I go? Initiation of joint travel in mother–infant dyads of two chimpanzee communities in the wild

Age ID/study period Site Audible gestures Tactile gestures Visual gestures Total
sc Total ao to pl pu Total lo lb ra Total
(a)
9–11 WZ/1 K   0    X   0 X   X 2 2
10–12 IN T   0   X    1 X   X 2 3
10–12 MH/1 T   0   X    1    X 1 2
14–15 MM/1 K   0   X    1     0 1
14–16 OB/1 K   0      0     0 0
15 JF T   0      0     0 0
15–17 SL/1 T   0   X    1     0 1
16–18 LL K   0   X    1     0 1
16–19 TR/1 K X 1      0   X X 2 3
19–21 KY/1 T   0   X    1     0 1
20–24 WZ/2 K   0      0     0 0
22–24 MH/2 T   0   X    1 X X X 3 4
26–28 MM/2 K   0      0     0 0
26–28 OB/2 K   0      0     0 0
27–29 SL/2 T   0 X X    2 X    1 3
28–30 TR/2 K   0   X    1    X 1 2
31–33 KY/2 T   0      0 X X X 3 3
48–50 OL K   0 X    X 2 X    1 3
55–56 WC/1 K   0 X X    2 X    1 3
64–65 IT T   0      0 X    1 1
67–69 WC/2 K X 1 X X X   3 X    1 5
Age ID/Study period Site Action Vocal Multi-modal
apr frz grb hon Total whi whi + gesture
(b)
9–11 WZ/1 K X    X 2 X lo
10–12 IN T X    X 2 X lo, ra
10–12 MH/1 T X    X 2   
14–15 MM/1 K      0 X  
14–16 OB/1 K X    X 2   
15 JF T X     1 X  
15–17 SL/1 T X     1   
16–18 LL K X     1 X  
16–19 TR/1 K X X   X 3 X lo
19–21 KY/1 T X X   X 3 X  
20–24 WZ/2 K X    X 2 X  
22–24 MH/2 T X    X 2 X lo, ra, to
26–28 MM/2 K X     1 X  
26–28 OB/2 K X X   X 3 X  
27–29 SL/2 T X X X X 4 X lo
28–30 TR/2 K X    X 2 X to, ra
31–33 KY/2 T X X X X 4 X lo, ra
48–50 OL K      0 X lo
55–56 WC/1 K X    X 2 X lo
64–65 IT T X     1 X lo
67–69 WC/2 K      0 X lo, sc, to