Animal Cognition

, Volume 17, Issue 6, pp 1329–1340 | Cite as

Bonobos and orangutans, but not chimpanzees, flexibly plan for the future in a token-exchange task

  • Marie Bourjade
  • Josep Call
  • Marie Pelé
  • Myriam Maumy
  • Valérie Dufour
Original Paper

Abstract

Non-human animals, including great apes, have been suggested to share some of the skills for planning that humans commonly exhibit. A crucial difference between human and non-human planning may relate to the diversity of domains and needs in which this skill is expressed. Although great apes can save tools for future use, there is little evidence yet that they can also do so in other contexts. To investigate this question further, we presented the apes with a planning token-exchange task that differed from standard tool-use tasks. Additionally, we manipulated the future outcome of the task to investigate planning flexibility. In the Exchange condition, subjects had to collect, save and transport tokens because they would need them 30 min later to exchange them for food with a human, i.e., “bring-back” response. In the Release condition, the collection and transport of tokens were not needed as no exchange took place after 30 min. Out of 13 subjects, eight solved the task at least once in the Exchange condition, with chimpanzees appearing less successful than the other species. Importantly, three individuals showed a clear differential response between conditions by producing more “bring-back” responses in the Exchange than in the Release conditions. Those bonobo and orangutan individuals hence adapted their planning behavior according to changing needs (i.e., they brought tokens back significantly more often when they would need them). Bonobos and orangutans, unlike chimpanzees, planned outside the context of tool-use, thus challenging the idea that planning in these species is purely domain-specific.

Keywords

Future planning Anticipation Foresight Non-human primate Token exchange 

Supplementary material

10071_2014_768_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (262 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 261 kb)
10071_2014_768_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (276 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (PDF 275 kb)
10071_2014_768_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (183 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (PDF 183 kb)

Supplementary Video S1. The orangutan Pini in the Exchange condition (MPG 43788 kb)

10071_2014_768_MOESM5_ESM.pdf (184 kb)
Supplementary material 5 (PDF 183 kb)

References

  1. Anderson JM, Hattori Y, Fujita K (2008) Quality before quantity: rapid learning of reverse-reward contingency by capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). J Comp Psychol 122:445–448. doi:10.1037/a0012624 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bar M (2007) The proactive brain: using analogies and associations to generate predictions. Trends Cogn Sci 11:280–289. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2007.05.005 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boesch C (1996) Social grouping in Tai’chimpanzees. In: McGrew WC, Marchant LF, Nishida T (eds) Great. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Ape Societies, pp 101–113Google Scholar
  4. Bourjade M, Thierry B, Call J, Dufour V (2012) Are monkeys able to plan for future exchange? Anim Cogn 15:783–795. doi:10.1007/s10071-012-0502-1 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brown H, Prescott R (2006) Applied Mixed Models in Medicine. Wiley, AmsterdamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chapman CA, Chapman LJ, Wrangham RW (1995) Ecological constraints on group size: an analysis of spider monkey and chimpanzee subgroups. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 36:59–70. doi:10.1007/BF00175729 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cheke LG, Clayton NS (2012) Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius) overcome their current desires to anticipate two distinct future needs and plan for them appropriately. Biol Lett 8:171–175. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2011.0909 PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Clayton NS, Yu KS, Dickinson A (2003) Interacting cache memories: Evidence for flexible memory use by Western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica). J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 29:14–22. doi:10.1037/0097-7403.29.1.14 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Correia SPC, Dickinson A, Clayton NS (2007) Western scrub-jays anticipate future needs independently of their current motivational state. Curr Biol 17:856–861. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2007.03.063 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dufour V, Sterck EHM (2008) Chimpanzees fail to plan in an exchange task but succeed in a tool-using procedure. Behav Processes 79:19–27. doi:10.1016/j.beproc.2008.04.003 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dufour V, Pelé M, Neumann M et al (2009) Calculated reciprocity after all: computation behind token transfers in orang-utans. Biol Lett 5:172–175. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2008.0644 PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Dufour V, Wascher CAF, Braun A et al (2012) Corvids can decide if a future exchange is worth waiting for. Biol Lett 8:201–204. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2011.0726 PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Feeney MC, Roberts WA, Sherry DF (2011) Black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) anticipate future outcomes of foraging choices. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 37:30–40. doi:10.1037/a0019908 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Furuichi T (2011) Female contributions to the peaceful nature of bonobo society. Evol Anthropol Issues News Rev 20:131–142. doi:10.1002/evan.20308 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gilbert DT, Wilson TD (2007) Prospection: Experiencing the future. Science 317:1351–1354. doi:10.1126/science.1144161 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Goodall J (1986) The chimpanzees of Gombe: patterns of behavior. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  17. Hare B (2001) Can competitive paradigms increase the validity of experiments on primate social cognition? Anim Cogn 4:269–280. doi:10.1007/s100710100084 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hare B, Tomasello M (2004) Chimpanzees are more skilful in competitive than in cooperative cognitive tasks. Anim Behav 68:571–581. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2003.11.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hillemann F, Bugnyar T, Kotrschal K, Wascher CAF (2014) Waiting for better, not for more: corvids respond to quality in two delay maintenance tasks. Anim Behav 90:1–10. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2014.01.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jaeggi AV, Burkart JM, Schaik CPV (2010) On the psychology of cooperation in humans and other primates: combining the natural history and experimental evidence of prosociality. Philos Trans R Soc B Biol Sci 365:2723–2735. doi:10.1098/rstb.2010.0118 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jensen K, Hare B, Call J, Tomasello M (2006) What’s in it for me? Self-regard precludes altruism and spite in chimpanzees. Proc R Soc B Biol Sci 273:1013–1021. doi:10.1098/rspb.2005.3417 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. McKenzie T, Cherman T, Bird LR et al (2004) Can squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) plan for the future? Studies of temporal myopia in food choice. Anim Learn Behav 32:377–390. doi:10.3758/BF03196035 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Melis AP, Hare B, Tomasello M (2006) Chimpanzees recruit the best collaborators. Science 311:1297–1300. doi:10.1126/science.1123007 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mitani JC, Grether GF, Rodman PS, Priatna D (1991) Association among wild orang-utans: sociality, passive aggregations or chance? Anim Behav 42:33–46. doi:10.1016/S0003-3472(05)80603-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mulcahy NJ, Call J (2006) Apes save tools for future use. Science 312:1038–1040. doi:10.1126/science.1125456 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Naqshbandi M, Roberts WA (2006) Anticipation of future events in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) and rats (Rattus norvegicus): tests of the Bischof-Kohler hypothesis. J Comp Psychol 120:345–357. doi:10.1037/0735-7036.120.4.345 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nishida T (1990) The chimpanzees of the Mahale Mountains: sexual and life history strategies. University of Tokyo Press, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  28. Osvath M, Osvath H (2008) Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and orangutan (Pongo abelii) forethought: self-control and pre-experience in the face of future tool use. Anim Cogn 11:661–674. doi:10.1007/s10071-008-0157-0 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Osvath M, Persson T (2013) Great apes can defer exchange: a replication with different results suggesting future oriented behavior. Front Psychol. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00698 PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Owen AM (1997) Cognitive planning in humans: neuropsychological, neuroanatomical and neuropharmacological perspectives. Prog Neurobiol 53:431–450. doi:10.1016/S0301-0082(97)00042-7 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Parish AR (1996) Female relationships in bonobos (Pan paniscus). Hu Nat 7:61–96. doi:10.1007/BF02733490 Google Scholar
  32. Pelé M, Dufour V, Thierry B, Call J (2009) Token transfers among great apes (Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus, Pan paniscus, and Pan troglodytes): species differences, gestural requests, and reciprocal exchange. J Comp Psychol 123:375–384. doi:10.1037/a0017253 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Petrides M (1994) Frontal lobes and working memory: evidence from investigations of the effects of cortical excisions in nonhuman primates. Handbook of Neuropsychology 9:59–82Google Scholar
  34. Raby CR, Clayton NS (2009) Prospective cognition in animals. Behav Processes 80:314–324. doi:10.1016/j.beproc.2008.12.005 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Raby CR, Alexis DM, Dickinson A, Clayton NS (2007) Planning for the future by western scrub-jays. Nature 445:919–921. doi:10.1038/nature05575 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Roberts WA (2002) Are animals stuck in time? Psychol Bull 128:473–489. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.128.3.473 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Roberts WA, Feeney MC (2009) The comparative study of mental time travel. Trends Cogn Sci 13:271–277. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2009.03.003 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Roberts WA, Feeney MC (2010) Temporal sequencing is essential to future planning: response to Osvath, Raby and Clayton. Trends Cogn Sci 14:52–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Schacter DL, Addis DR, Buckner RL (2008) Episodic simulation of future events. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1124:39–60. doi:10.1196/annals.1440.001 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Silberberg A, Widholm JJ, Bresler D, Fujita K, Anderson JR (1998) Natural choice in nonhuman primates. J Exp Psychol: Anim Behav Processes 24:215–228Google Scholar
  41. Stanford CB (1998) The social behavior of chimpanzees and bonobos: empirical evidence and shifting assumptions 1. Curr Anthropol 39:399–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Stumpf R (2007) Chimpanzees and bonobos: diversity within and between species. In Campbell CJ (ed) Primates in perspective. Oxford University Press, Ann Arbor, pp 321–344Google Scholar
  43. Subiaul F, Vonk J, Okamoto-Barth S, Barth J (2008) Do chimpanzees learn reputation by observation? Evidence from direct and indirect experience with generous and selfish strangers. Anim Cogn 11:611–623. doi:10.1007/s10071-008-0151-6 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Suddendorf T, Busby J (2005) Making decisions with the future in mind: developmental and comparative identification of mental time travel. Learn Motiv 36:110–125. doi:10.1016/j.lmot.2005.02.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Suddendorf T, Corballis MC (2007) The evolution of foresight: what is mental time travel, and is it unique to humans? Behav Brain Sci 30:299–313. doi:10.1017/S0140525X07001975 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Suddendorf T, Corballis MC (2010) Behavioural evidence for mental time travel in nonhuman animals. Behav Brain Res 215:292–298. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2009.11.044 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Szpunar KK (2010) Episodic future thought an emerging concept. Perspect Psychol Sci 5:142–162. doi:10.1177/1745691610362350 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Tan J, Hare B (2013) Bonobos share with strangers. PLoS ONE 8:e51922. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051922 PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. Tulving E (1983) Elements of episodic memory. Clarendon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  50. Tulving E (2005) Episodic Memory and Autonoesis: Uniquely Human? In: Terrace HS, Metcalfe J (eds) The missing link in cognition: Origins of self-reflective consciousness. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 3–56Google Scholar
  51. Van Schaik CP (1999) The socioecology of fission-fusion sociality in Orangutans. Primates 40:69–86. doi:10.1007/BF02557703 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Van Schaik CP, Damerius L, Isler K (2013) Wild orangutan males plan and communicate their travel direction one day in advance. PLoS ONE 8:e74896. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0074896 PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. Wascher CAF, Dufour V, Bugnyar T (2012) Carrion Crows Cannot Overcome Impulsive Choice in a Quantitative Exchange Task. Front Psychol. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00118 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marie Bourjade
    • 1
  • Josep Call
    • 2
    • 3
  • Marie Pelé
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
  • Myriam Maumy
    • 7
  • Valérie Dufour
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Laboratoire de Psychologie Cognitive (UMR 7290), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)Aix-Marseille UniversitéMarseille Cedex 3France
  2. 2.School of Psychology and NeuroscienceUniversity of St AndrewsSt AndrewsScotland, UK
  3. 3.Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary AnthropologyLeipzigGermany
  4. 4.Département Ecologie, Physiologie et EthologieCentre National de la Recherche ScientifiqueStrasbourgFrance
  5. 5.Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert CurienUniversité de StrasbourgStrasbourgFrance
  6. 6.Ethobiosciences, Research and Consultancy Agency in Animal Well-being and BehaviourStrasbourgFrance
  7. 7.Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut de Recherche Mathématique AvancéeUniversité de StrasbourgStrasbourgFrance

Personalised recommendations