Animal Cognition

, Volume 17, Issue 3, pp 681–687

Dissociation of visual localization and visual detection in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

  • Lau M. Andersen
  • Benjamin M. Basile
  • Robert R. Hampton
Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s10071-013-0699-7

Cite this article as:
Andersen, L.M., Basile, B.M. & Hampton, R.R. Anim Cogn (2014) 17: 681. doi:10.1007/s10071-013-0699-7


Conscious and unconscious cognitive processes contribute independently to human behavior and can be dissociated. For example, humans report failing to see objects clearly in the periphery while simultaneously being able to grasp those objects accurately (Milner in Proc R Soc B Biol Sci 279:2289–2298, 2012). Knowing whether similar dissociations are present in nonverbal species is critical to our understanding of comparative psychology and the evolution of brains. However, such dissociations are difficult to detect in nonhumans because verbal reports of experience are the main way we discriminate putative conscious from unconscious processing. We trained monkeys in a localization task in which they responded to the location where a target appeared, and a matched detection task in which they reported the presence or absence of the same target. We used masking to manipulate the visibility of targets. Accuracy was high in both tasks when stimuli were unmasked and was attenuated by visual masking. At the strongest level of masking, performance in the detection task was at chance, while localization remained significantly above chance. Critically, errors in the detection task were predominantly misses, indicating that the monkeys’ behavior remained under stimulus control, but that the monkeys did not detect the target despite above-chance localization. While these results cannot establish the existence of phenomenal vision in monkeys, the dissociation of visually guided action from detection parallels the dissociation of conscious and unconscious vision seen in humans.


Blindsight Masking Signal detection Perception Vision 

Supplementary material

10071_2013_699_MOESM1_ESM.xls (10 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (XLS 9 kb)
10071_2013_699_MOESM2_ESM.xls (10 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (XLS 10 kb)

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lau M. Andersen
    • 1
  • Benjamin M. Basile
    • 2
  • Robert R. Hampton
    • 2
  1. 1.Center for Functionally Integrative NeuroscienceAarhus UniversityAarhusDenmark
  2. 2.Emory UniversityAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations