Sensing sociality in dogs: what may make an interactive robot social?
This study investigated whether dogs would engage in social interactions with an unfamiliar robot, utilize the communicative signals it provides and to examine whether the level of sociality shown by the robot affects the dogs’ performance. We hypothesized that dogs would react to the communicative signals of a robot more successfully if the robot showed interactive social behaviour in general (towards both humans and dogs) than if it behaved in a machinelike, asocial way. The experiment consisted of an interactive phase followed by a pointing session, both with a human and a robotic experimenter. In the interaction phase, dogs witnessed a 6-min interaction episode between the owner and a human experimenter and another 6-min interaction episode between the owner and the robot. Each interaction episode was followed by the pointing phase in which the human/robot experimenter indicated the location of hidden food by using pointing gestures (two-way choice test). The results showed that in the interaction phase, the dogs’ behaviour towards the robot was affected by the differential exposure. Dogs spent more time staying near the robot experimenter as compared to the human experimenter, with this difference being even more pronounced when the robot behaved socially. Similarly, dogs spent more time gazing at the head of the robot experimenter when the situation was social. Dogs achieved a significantly lower level of performance (finding the hidden food) with the pointing robot than with the pointing human; however, separate analysis of the robot sessions suggested that gestures of the socially behaving robot were easier for the dogs to comprehend than gestures of the asocially behaving robot. Thus, the level of sociality shown by the robot was not enough to elicit the same set of social behaviours from the dogs as was possible with humans, although sociality had a positive effect on dog–robot interactions.
KeywordsDogs Robots Third-party interactions Pointing
- Jones T, Lawson S, Mills D (2008) Interaction with a zoomorphic robot that exhibits canid mechanisms of behaviour. In: Robotics and automation, 2008. ICRA 2008. IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Pasadena, pp 2128–2133Google Scholar
- Lakatos G (2010) Analysis of visual communication between human and dog. PhD Thesis. Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, HungaryGoogle Scholar
- Lakatos G, Dóka A, Miklósi Á (2007) The role of visual cues in the comprehension of the human pointing signals in dogs. Int J Comp Psychol 20:341–351Google Scholar
- Pfungst O (1911) Clever Hans (The horse of Mr. von Osten): a contribution to experimental animal and human psychology (Trans. C. L. Rahn). New York: Henry Holt. (Originally published in German, 1907)Google Scholar
- Steels L (2001) Social learning and verbal communication with humanoid robots. Proceedings of the IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid RobotsGoogle Scholar
- Tomasello M (2008) Origins of human communication. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar