Perceptuomotor functions that support using hand tools can be examined in other manipulation tasks, such as alignment of objects to surfaces. We examined tufted capuchin monkeys’ and chimpanzees’ performance at aligning objects to surfaces while managing one or two spatial relations to do so. We presented six subjects of each species with a single stick to place into a groove, two sticks of equal length to place into two grooves, or two sticks joined as a T to place into a T-shaped groove. Tufted capuchins and chimpanzees performed equivalently on these tasks, aligning the straight stick to within 22.5° of parallel to the groove in approximately half of their attempts to place it, and taking more attempts to place the T stick than two straight sticks. The findings provide strong evidence that tufted capuchins and chimpanzees do not reliably align even one prominent axial feature of an object to a surface, and that managing two concurrent allocentric spatial relations in an alignment problem is significantly more challenging to them than managing two sequential relations. In contrast, humans from 2 years of age display very different perceptuomotor abilities in a similar task: they align sticks to a groove reliably on each attempt, and they readily manage two allocentric spatial relations concurrently. Limitations in aligning objects and in managing two or more relations at a time significantly constrain how nonhuman primates can use hand tools.
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Recent molecular analysis has revealed that capuchin monkeys, formerly identified as the single genus Cebus, are two genera, with the robust (tufted) forms (including apella, libidinosus, xanthosternos, and several other species) now recognized as the genus Sapajus, and the gracile forms retained as the genus Cebus (Lynch Alfaro et al. 2012a, b). Because colonies of tufted capuchin monkeys held in the USA are derived from animals imported from the wild prior to the elevation of subspecies of Cebus apella to true species, and more recently, to a species in the genus Sapajus, distinct from Cebus, monkeys in these colonies are now recognized as unknown combinations of species and hybrids of the genus Sapajus, rather than as C. apella.
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Supported by NIH Grants HD060563 and HD056352 to Georgia State University. The contents of this article do not necessarily represent the official views of NIH. We thank John Kelly, Jennifer Schaeffer and Jamie Russell for assistance with testing.
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la Cour, L.T., Stone, B.W., Hopkins, W. et al. What limits tool use in nonhuman primates? Insights from tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) aligning three-dimensional objects to a surface. Anim Cogn 17, 113–125 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10071-013-0643-x
- Tool use
- Spatial reasoning
- Pan troglodytes
- Posting task