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Egyptian chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.) during germination: Upgrading of phenolic profile, antioxidant, antibacterial properties and relevant enzymes activities

Abstract

Little studies on chia sprouts were not deeply address the polyphenols profiles and their functional properties during long period of germination. This study aims to evaluate the impact of germination process on the phenolic profile, antioxidant and antibacterial properties and relevant enzymes activities of Egyptian chia seeds. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of chia sprouts increased several times during ten days of germination and maximized on 7-day sprouts (6.4 and 11.5 folds, respectively). In HPLC analysis, seventeen phenolic compounds were detected on 7-day sprouts compared to fifteen in dry seeds, where two new phenolic compounds (p-coumaric acid and kaempferol) were detected. The concentrations of all the identified phenolic compounds increased several folds (1.8–27) on 7-day sprouts. The total antioxidant activity increased 10, 17, and 29 folds on 7-day sprouts using DPPH, ABTS and PMC antioxidant methods, respectively compared to the dry seeds. Both antioxidant and carbohydrate-cleaving enzymes increased in chia sprouts and correlated with their phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The phenolic content of 7-day sprouts showed a potent antibacterial activity against some human enteric pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli O157-H7, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus with lower MIC values compared to the raw seeds.

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Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge the National Research Centre (NRC), Cairo, Egypt, for mainly financially supporting this research under contract No. 12020110.

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AMA and SAM had the original idea for the study and carried out the design. AMA, AME, HAS, RIB and SAM were responsible for data analysis, data cleaning, and writing the manuscript. The final draft manuscript was revised and approved by all authors.

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Correspondence to Azza M. Abdel-Aty.

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Abdel-Aty, A.M., Elsayed, A.M., Salah, H.A. et al. Egyptian chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.) during germination: Upgrading of phenolic profile, antioxidant, antibacterial properties and relevant enzymes activities. Food Sci Biotechnol 30, 723–734 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10068-021-00902-2

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Keywords

  • Salvia hispanica
  • Phenolic content
  • Antioxidant activity
  • Antibacterial activity
  • Antioxidant enzyme
  • Carbohydrate-cleaving enzyme