Effects of Maillard reaction on physicochemical and functional properties of walnut protein isolate
- 53 Downloads
In this study, the Maillard reaction (MR) of glucose was applied to improve the physicochemical and functional properties of walnut protein isolate (WNPI). The MR products (MRPs) were prepared with glucose at 0 h (MRP0), 1 h (MRP1), 2 h (MRP2) and 3 h (MRP3) heating at 95 °C. The Infra-Red spectrum showed reduction of amide and S–H functionalities in MRPs with complete intermixing of glucose in MRP3. Scanning electron microscopy indicated changes in the morphology of MRP3 which also exhibited promising antioxidant effect. Significant decrease (P < 0.05) in hydrophobicity values (Ho) and increase (P < 0.05) in emulsifying activity/emulsifying stability indexes values were observed for MRPs. Uniform droplet distribution was observed in microscopy of emulsions while an increase in the interfacial protein concentration (Г) was obtained for MRPs. These results suggest that MR is useful in improving the utilization of this protein in food product development.
KeywordsWalnut protein isolate Maillard reaction Physicochemical and functional properties FT-IR SEM Antioxidant effect
No funding was received from any agencies (public and commercial) or not for profit sectors.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The author declare that they are no conflict of interest
- A.O.A.C. Methods of analysis. 15th ed. Association 243 of Official Agricultural Chemistry, Washington (1990)Google Scholar
- Nursten HE. The Maillard reaction: chemistry, biochemistry, and implications. Royal Society of Chemistry, London (2005)Google Scholar
- Resendiz-Vazquez JA, Ulloa JA, Urías-Silvas JE, Bautista-Rosales PU, Ramírez-Ramírez JC, Rosas-Ulloa P, González-Torres L. Effect of high-intensity ultrasound on the technofunctional properties and structure of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) seed protein isolate. Ultrason. Sonochem. 37:436–444 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tu Z-C, Hu Y-M, Wang H, Huang X-Q, Xia SQ, Niu P-P. Microwave heating enhances antioxidant and emulsifying activities of ovalbumin glycated with glucose in solid-state. J. Food Sci. Technol. (2013). 10.1007/s13197-013-1120-xGoogle Scholar
- Walstra P Formation of emulsion. Vol. 3, pp. 57-127. In: Encyclopedia of emulsion technology: Basic theory. Becher P (ed). Marcel Decker, New York, (1983)Google Scholar
- Zhou L, Wu F, Zhang X, Wang Z. Structural and functional properties of Maillard reaction products of protein isolate (mung bean, Vigna radiate L.) with dextran. Int. J. Food Proper. 20: 1246–1258 (2017)Google Scholar