Modeling of drying and ameliorative effects of relative humidity (RH) against β-carotene degradation and color of carrot (Daucus carota var.) slices


Drying and β-carotenes retention kinetics were predicted using models in relative humidity (RH) drying condition. This was achieved by drying carrot slices using RH-convective hot-air dryer at 60, 70 and 80 °C under RH (10% 20% and 30%) conditions at 2.0 m/s air velocity. Three mathematical models describing thin layer were compared to their goodness of fit in terms of coefficient of correlation (R2), root mean square error (RMSE) and reduced Chi square (\(\chi^{2}\)). The Wang and Singh model could satisfactorily describe RH-convective drying of carrot slices with R2, RMSE and \(\chi^{2}\) in the ranges of 0.996–0.999, 5.4 × 10−4–9.4 × 10−4 and 0.0150–0.03353 respectively. The results reveal that a range of 3.61–8.2% retention of β-carotene was observed for every 10% increase in RH in various drying air temperature. In summary, higher temperatures were mainly responsible for β-carotenes degradation however this can be mitigated when drying is conducted under higher RH.

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Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3


R2 :

Coefficient of correlation

χ 2 :

Chi square


Root mean square error

Ea :

Activation energy


Gibbs free energy change


Enthalpy change


Entropy change

\(\Delta {\text{E}}^{ *}\) :

Total color difference

Deff :

Effective moisture diffusivity


Relative humidity

\(k, k_{1}, a, n\) and b :

Kinetic constants


Arrhenius constant


Dry matter


Water activity


Person’s coefficient of correlation


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The authors are grateful for the support provided by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFD0400903-01, 2016YFD0400705-04), the Policy Guidance Program (Research Cooperation) of Jiangsu (BY2016072-03), the Social Development Program (General Project) of Jiangsu (BE2016779) and the Special Fund of Jiangsu Province for the Transformation of Scientific and Technological Achievements (BA2016169).

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Correspondence to Cunshan Zhou.

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Sarpong, F., Zhou, C., Bai, J. et al. Modeling of drying and ameliorative effects of relative humidity (RH) against β-carotene degradation and color of carrot (Daucus carota var.) slices. Food Sci Biotechnol 28, 75–85 (2019).

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  • β-Carotene
  • Carrot
  • Drying
  • Relative humidity
  • Modelling