Food Science and Biotechnology

, Volume 27, Issue 4, pp 997–1005 | Cite as

Pectin extraction from citron peel: optimization by Box–Behnken response surface design

  • Bahare Pasandide
  • Faramarz Khodaiyan
  • Zeinab Mousavi
  • Seyed Saeid Hosseini


In this study, the effect of acidic extraction conditions (time of 30–90 min, temperature of 75–95 °C and pH of 1.5–3) on the yield and degree of esterification (DE) of citron peel pectin was investigated applying Box–Behnken design. The highest production yield of pectin (28.31 ± 0.11%) was achieved at extraction time of 90 min, temperature of 95 °C and pH of 1.5, as optimal extraction conditions, which was close to the predicted value (29.87%). Under optimum extraction conditions, the DE and the emulsifying activity were 51.33 and 46.2%, respectively. In addition, the emulsions were 93.9 and 93.5 stable at 4 °C, 93.7 and 93.1 at 23 °C after 1 and 30 days, respectively. The determination of flow behavior showed that the pectin solutions had a Newtonian behavior at low concentrations (< 1.0% w/v), while this behavior was changed to pseudoplastic with increasing concentration.


Pectin Citron Optimization Response surface methodology 



This study was a part of a Master’s degree research work, and the authors would like to thank all the members of Food Science and Technology Department, University of Tehran.


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Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology and Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bahare Pasandide
    • 1
  • Faramarz Khodaiyan
    • 1
  • Zeinab Mousavi
    • 1
  • Seyed Saeid Hosseini
    • 1
  1. 1.Bioprocessing and Biodetection Laboratory, Department of Food Science, Technology and EngineeringUniversity of TehranKarajIran

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