Pectin extraction from citron peel: optimization by Box–Behnken response surface design
- 228 Downloads
In this study, the effect of acidic extraction conditions (time of 30–90 min, temperature of 75–95 °C and pH of 1.5–3) on the yield and degree of esterification (DE) of citron peel pectin was investigated applying Box–Behnken design. The highest production yield of pectin (28.31 ± 0.11%) was achieved at extraction time of 90 min, temperature of 95 °C and pH of 1.5, as optimal extraction conditions, which was close to the predicted value (29.87%). Under optimum extraction conditions, the DE and the emulsifying activity were 51.33 and 46.2%, respectively. In addition, the emulsions were 93.9 and 93.5 stable at 4 °C, 93.7 and 93.1 at 23 °C after 1 and 30 days, respectively. The determination of flow behavior showed that the pectin solutions had a Newtonian behavior at low concentrations (< 1.0% w/v), while this behavior was changed to pseudoplastic with increasing concentration.
KeywordsPectin Citron Optimization Response surface methodology
This study was a part of a Master’s degree research work, and the authors would like to thank all the members of Food Science and Technology Department, University of Tehran.
- 11.Essien EP, Essien JP, Ita BN, Ebong GA. Physicochemical properties and fungitoxicity of the essential oil of Citrus medica L. against groundnut storage fungi. Turk. J. Botany. 32: 161–164 (2008)Google Scholar
- 21.Kozarski M, Klaus A, Niksic M, Jakovljevic D, Helsper JPFG, Van Griensven LJLD. Antioxidative and immunomodulating activities of polysaccharide extracts of the medicinal mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus brasiliensis, Ganoderma lucidum and Phellinus linteus. Food Chem. 129: 1667–1675 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 22.Kumbar V, Nedomova S, Pytel R, Kilian L, Buchar J. Study of rheology and friction factor of natural food hydrocolloid gels. Potravin. Slovak J. Food Sci. 11: 203–209 (2017)Google Scholar
- 26.Menichini F, Tundis R, Bonesi M, de Cindio B, Loizzo MR, Conforti F, Statti GA, Menabeni R, Bettini R, Menichini F. Chemical composition and bioactivity of Citrus medica L. cv. Diamante essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation, cold-pressing and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. Nat. Prod. Res. 25: 789–799 (2011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 29.Nicolosi E, La Malfa S, El-Otmani M, Negbi M, Goldschmidt EE. The search for the authentic citron (Citrus medica L.): Historic and genetic analysis. HortScience. 40:1963–1968 (2005)Google Scholar