Antioxidant activity and contents of leaf extracts obtained from Dendropanax morbifera LEV are dependent on the collecting season and extraction conditions


This study compared the antioxidant activity of extracts from Dendropanax morbifera (D. morbifera) Levillis leaves. The concentrations of flavonoids and polyphenols were measured in extracts of D. morbifera leaves. The antioxidant activities were examined by ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Total flavonoid and polyphenol contents, and FRAP were highest in the 30% ethanol extract collected in May. The ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities were the highest in the 60% ethanol extract harvested in May. For investigating the relationship between antioxidant activity and specific polyphenols, rutin and chlorogenic acid of the polyphenol component were quantified by LC–MS/MS analysis. The concentrations of them were highest in the 60% ethanol extract collected in May, and showed positive correlations with antioxidant activities. The optimal extraction conditions to yield the most effective antioxidant activity were obtained using a 60% ethanol extraction solvent with samples collected in May.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3


  1. 1.

    Kornfeld OS, Hwang S, Disatnik MH, Chen CH, Qvit N, Mochly-Rosen D (2015) Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species at the heart of the matter: new therapeutic approaches for cardiovascular diseases. Circ Res 116:1783–1799

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Cho M, Ko SB, Kim JM, Lee OH, Lee DW, Kim JY (2016) Influence of extraction conditions on antioxidant activities and catechin content from bark of Ulmus pumila L. Appl Biol Chem 59:329–336

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Moniczewski A, Gawlik M, Smaga I, Niedzielska E, Krzek J, Przegalinski E, Pera J, Filip M (2015) Oxidative stress as an etiological factor and a potential treatment target of psychiatric disorders. Part 1. Chemical aspects and biological sources of oxidative stress in the brain. Pharmacol Rep 67:560–568

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Hanus J, Zhang H, Wang Z, Liu Q, Zhou Q, Wang S (2013) Induction of necrotic cell death by oxidative stress in retinal pigment epithelial cells. Cell Death Dis 4:e965

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Sinha N, Dabla PK (2015) Oxidative stress and antioxidants in hypertension–a current review. Curr Hypertens Rev 11:132–142

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Perez-Cornago A, Lopez-Legarrea P, de la Iglesia R, Lahortiga F, Martinez JA, Zulet MA (2014) Longitudinal relationship of diet and oxidative stress with depressive symptoms in patients with metabolic syndrome after following a weight loss treatment: the RESMENA project. Clin Nutr 33:1061–1067

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Kirkham PA, Barnes PJ (2013) Oxidative stress in COPD. Chest 144:266–273

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Hamishehkar H, Khani S, Kashanian S, Ezzati Nazhad Dolatabadi J, Eskandani M (2014) Geno- and cytotoxicity of propyl gallate food additive. Drug Chem Toxicol 37:241–246

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Taghvaei M, Jafari SM (2015) Application and stability of natural antioxidants in edible oils in order to substitute synthetic additives. J Food Sci Technol 52:1272–1282

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Park BY, Min BS, Oh SR, Kim JH, Kim TJ, Kim DH, Bae KH, Lee HK (2004) Isolation and anticomplement activity of compounds from Dendropanax morbifera. J Ethnopharmacol 90:403–408

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Kim LS, Youn SH, Kim JY (2014) Comparative Study on Antioxidant Effects of Extracts from Rubus coreanus and Rubus occidentalis. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 43:1357–1362

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Kim W, Yim HS, Yoo DY, Jung HY, Kim JW, Choi JH, Yoon YS, Kim DW, Hwang IK (2016) Dendropanax morbifera Leveille extract ameliorates cadmium-induced impairment in memory and hippocampal neurogenesis in rats. BMC Complement Altern Med 16:452

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Hyun TK, Kim MO, Lee H, Kim Y, Kim E, Kim JS (2013) Evaluation of anti-oxidant and anti-cancer properties of Dendropanax morbifera Leveille. Food Chem 141:1947–1955

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Chung IM, Song HK, Kim SJ, Moon HI (2011) Anticomplement activity of polyacetylenes from leaves of Dendropanax morbifera Leveille. Phytother Res 25:784–786

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Moon HI (2011) Antidiabetic effects of dendropanoxide from leaves of Dendropanax morbifera Leveille in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Hum Exp Toxicol 30:870–875

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Nakamura M, Ra JH, Kim JS (2016) The comparative analysis of antioxidant and biological activity for the Dendropanax morbifera LEV. Leaves extracted by different ethanol concentrations. Yakugaku Zasshi 136:1285–1296

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Ahn JC, Kim SH, Kim MY, Kim OT, Kim KS, Hwang B (2003) Seasonal variations in yields of Hwangchil lacquer and major sesquiterpene compounds from selected superior individuals of Dendropanax morbifera Lev. J Plant Biol 46:38–40

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Meda A, Lamien CE, Romito M, Millogo J, Nacoulma OG (2005) Determination of the total phenolic, flavonoid and proline contents in Burkina Fasan honey, as well as their radical scavenging activity. Food Chem 91:571–577

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Kim W, Kim DW, Yoo DY, Jung HY, Nam SM, Kim JW, Hong SM, Kim DW, Choi JH, Moon SM, Yoon YS, Hwang IK (2014) Dendropanax morbifera Leveille extract facilitates cadmium excretion and prevents oxidative damage in the hippocampus by increasing antioxidant levels in cadmium-exposed rats. BMC Complement Altern Med 14:428

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, Pannala A, Yang M, Rice-Evans C (1999) Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radic Biol Med 26:1231–1237

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Mensor LL, Menezes FS, Leitão GG, Reis AS, Dos Santos TC, Coube CS, Leitão SG (2001) Screening of Brazilian plant extracts for antioxidant activity by the use of DPPH free radical method. Phytother Res 15:127–130

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Dudonne S, Vitrac X, Coutiere P, Woillez M, Merillon JM (2009) Comparative study of antioxidant properties and total phenolic content of 30 plant extracts of industrial interest using DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, SOD, and ORAC assays. J Agric Food Chem 57:1768–1774

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Benzie IF, Strain JJ (1996) The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “antioxidant power”: the FRAP assay. Anal Biochem 239:70–76

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Reisz JA, Wither MJ, Dzieciatkowska M, Nemkov T, Issaian A, Yoshida T, Dunham AJ, Hill RC, Hansen KC, D’Alessandro A (2016) Oxidative modifications of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase regulate metabolic reprogramming of stored red blood cells. Blood 128:e32–42

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Rampler E, Coman C, Hermann G, Sickmann A, Ahrends R, Koellensperger G (2017) LILY-lipidome isotope labeling of yeast: in vivo synthesis of 13C labeled reference lipids for quantification by mass spectrometry. Analyst 142:1891–1899

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Kim YJ, Shin Y (2015) Antioxidant profile, antioxidant activity, and physicochemical characteristics of strawberries from different cultivars and harvest locations. J Korean Soc Appl Bi 58:587–595

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Yang H, Shin Y (2017) Antioxidant compounds and activities of edible roses (Rosa hybrida spp.) from different cultivars grown in Korea. Appl Biol Chem 60:129–136

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Kim KY, Park MH, Kim KH, Im SH, Park YH, Kim YN (2009) Analysis of chemical composition and in vitro anti-oxidant properties of extracts from sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides). J Appl Biol Chem 52:58–64

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Rahman MM, Islam MB, Biswas M, Khurshid Alam AH (2015) In vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of different parts of Tabebuia pallida growing in Bangladesh. BMC Res Notes 8:621

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Tai A, Ohno A, Ito H (2016) Isolation and Characterization of the 2,2′-Azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) Radical Cation-Scavenging Reaction Products of Arbutin. J Agric Food Chem 64:7285–7290

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Chen TS, Liou SY, Wu HC, Tsai FJ, Tsai CH, Huang CY, Chang YL (2010) New analytical method for investigating the antioxidant power of food extracts on the basis of their electron-donating ability: comparison to the ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. J Agric Food Chem 58:8477–8480

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Azevedo MI, Pereira AF, Nogueira RB, Rolim FE, Brito GA, Wong DV, Lima-Júnior RC, de Albuquerque Ribeiro R, Vale ML (2013) The antioxidant effects of the flavonoids rutin and quercetin inhibit oxaliplatin-induced chronic painful peripheral neuropathy. Mol Pain 9:53

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Sato Y, Itagaki S, Kurokawa T, Ogura J, Kobayashi M, Hirano T, Sugawara M, Iseki K (2011) In vitro and in vivo antioxidant properties of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid. Int J Pharm 403:136–138

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Hu W, Guo T, Jiang WJ, Dong GL, Chen DW, Yang SL, Li HR (2015) Effects of ultrahigh pressure extraction on yield and antioxidant activity of chlorogenic acid and cynaroside extracted from flower buds of Lonicera japonica. Chin J Nat Med 13:445–453

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Kareem HS, Ariffin A, Nordin N, Heidelberg T, Abdul-Aziz A, Kong KW, Yehye WA (2015) Correlation of antioxidant activities with theoretical studies for new hydrazone compounds bearing a 3,4,5-trimethoxy benzyl moiety. Eur J Med Chem 103:497–505

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


The results have been undertaken with the support from the Agency for Jeju Plant Resources Dendropanax.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ji Yeon Kim.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Youn, J.S., Kim, Y., Na, H.J. et al. Antioxidant activity and contents of leaf extracts obtained from Dendropanax morbifera LEV are dependent on the collecting season and extraction conditions. Food Sci Biotechnol 28, 201–207 (2019).

Download citation


  • Antioxidant activity
  • Chlorogenic acid
  • Dendropanax morbifera
  • Flavonoids
  • Rutin