Food Science and Biotechnology

, Volume 27, Issue 4, pp 1145–1155 | Cite as

Changes in quality properties of kimchi based on the nitrogen content of fermented anchovy sauce, Myeolchi Aekjeot, during fermentation

  • Yun-Jeong Choi
  • Hae-Won Lee
  • Ji-Hee Yang
  • Sung-Wook Hong
  • Sung-Hee Park
  • Mi-Ai Lee


This study was conducted to examine the effects of the total nitrogen (TN) concentration in anchovy sauce added to kimchi on chemical properties during kimchi fermentation for 56 days. Kimchi was assigned to one of the following five treatments: CTL (No anchovy sauce addition), T-1 (TN 1.16% anchovy sauce), T-2 (TN 1.41% anchovy sauce), T-3 (TN 1.59% anchovy sauce), T-4 (TN 1.79% anchovy sauce). The quality characteristics of kimchi were determined by measuring the pH, acidity, reducing sugar, volatile basic nitrogen (VBN), amino nitrogen (AN), and microbial composition. During fermentation, the acidity of all treatment groups increased, whereas the reducing sugar content decreased gradually during fermentation. There were no significant differences in pH and acidity or reducing sugar content. The VBN and AN contents increased during fermentation from 15.65 to 31.21%. Overall, these results demonstrate that the TN concentration of anchovy mainly affects the VBN and AN levels in kimchi.


Kimchi Anchovy sauce Nitrogen Glutamic acid Fermentation 



This research was supported by a Grant from the World Institute of Kimchi (KE1603-4, KE1801-3), funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT, Republic of Korea.


  1. 1.
    Kim SH, Kim SH, Kang KH, Lee SH, Kim SJ, Kim JG, Chung MJ. Kimchi probiotic bacteria contribute to reduced amounts of N-nitrosodimethylamine in lactic acid bacteria-fortified kimchi. LWT Food Sci. Technol. 84: 196–203 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Park KY. The nutritional evaluation, and antimutagenic and anticancer effects of kimchi. J. Korean Soc. Food Nutr. 24: 169–182 (1995)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jeon CG. Marketing analysis of the imported kimchi and challenges for the domestic kimchi industry. Korean J. Food Mark. Econ. 26: 79–101 (2009)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lee JY, Park YS, Kim YS, Shin DH. Antimicrobial characteristics of metabolites of lactic acid bacteria isolated from feces of newborn baby and from dongchimi. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 34: 472–479 (2002)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Moon GS, Song YS, Ryu BM, Jeon YS. The study on the qualities of commercial anchovy sauce and kimchies prepared with different anchovy sauces. Korean J. Soc. Food Sci. 13: 272–277 (1997)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    No HK, Lee SH, Kim SD. Effects of ingredients on fermentation of Chinese cabbage kimchi. J. Korean Soc. Food Nutr. 24: 642–650 (1995)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kang KH, Kim SH, Kim SH, Kim JG, Sung NJ, Lee SJ, Chung MJ. Effects of amount and type of jeotgal, a traditional korean salted and fermented seafood, on N-nitrosodimethylamine formation during storage of kimchi. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 45: 1302–1309 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Anggo AD, Ma’ruf, WF, Swastawati F, Rianingsih L. Changes of amino and fatty acids in anchovy (Stolephorus sp) fermented fish paste with different fermentation periods. Procedia Environ. Sci. 23: 58–63 (2015)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Koo OK, Lee SJ, Chung KR, Jang DJ, Yang HJ. Korean traditional fermented fish products: jeotgal. J. Ethn. Foods 3: 107–116 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Oh KS. The comparison and index components in quality of salt-fermented anchovy sauces. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 27: 487–494 (1995)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lim YS. Studies on the quality standards for the grading of salt-fermented fish sauces. Ph.D. thesis, Pukyung National University, Busan, Korea (2000)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lee SH, Jung JY, Jeon CO. Bacterial community dynamics and metabolite changes in myeolchi-aekjeot, a Korean traditional fermented fish sauce, during fermentation. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 203: 15–22 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mah JH, Hwang HJ. Effects of food additives on biogenic amine formation in Myeolchi-jeot, a salted and fermented anchovy (Engraulis japonicas). Food Chem. 114: 168–173 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ko YT, Hwang JK, Baik IH. Effects of jeotkal addition on quality of kimchi. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 26: 123–128 (2004)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    AOAC. Official methods of analysis AOAC international 18th ed, AOAC International, Washington D.C., USA (2005)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Miller GL. Use of dinitrosalicylic acid reagent for determination of reducing sugar. Anal. Chem. 31: 426–428 (1959)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Duncan DB. Multiple-range and multiple F tests. Biometrics 11: 1–42 (1955)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lee HW, Choi YJ, Hwang IM, Hong SW, Lee MA. Relationship between chemical characteristics and bacterial community of a Korean salted-fermented anchovy sauce, Myeolchi-Aekjeot. LWT Food Sci. Technol. 73: 251–258 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    KATS. Korean industrial standards. Korean Agency for Technology and Standards, Fermented anchovy sauce, KS H 6022, Eumsung, Korea (2016)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hall NG, Schonfeldt HC. Total nitrogen vs. Amino-acid profile as indicator of protein content of beef. Food Chem. 140: 608–612 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ku KH, Kang KO, Kim WJ. Some quality changes during fermentation of kimchi. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 20: 476–482 (1988)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kim SH, Hyon JS, Oh CK, Oh MC, Park CS, Kang SB. Changes of secondary, Tertiary amines and quarternary ammonium compounds, and formation of N-nitrosamine during fermentation of kimchi with anchovy sauce. J. Korean Soc. Food Nutr. 23: 704–710 (1994)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Seo SH, Park SE, Lee KI, Na CS, Son HS. A GC-MS based metabolomics approach to determine the effect of salinity on Kimchi. Food Res. Int. 105: 492–498 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jang MR, Kim, IY, Hong MS, Shin JM, Han KY. Quality evaluation of commercial salted and fermented fish sauces. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 36 423–431 (2004)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Park SY. Food quality evaluation of raw and salted mackerel collected at market in Busan. MS thesis, Pukyoung National University, Busan, Korea (2009)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chae SK. Studies on microbial and enzymatic actions during the ripening process of salted Alaska Pollack tripe. Korean J. Food Nutr. 24: 340–349 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cho YJ, Jung MH, Kim BK, Jung WY, Gye HJ, Jung HJ. Effect of raw material freshness on quality and safety of anchovy fish sauce. JFMSE. 27: 1194–1201 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Min SG, Kim JH, Kim SM, Sin HS, Hong GH, Oh DG, Kim KN. Manufactures of functional kimchi using Bifidobacterium strain producing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) as starter. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 35: 111–114 (2003)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Woo SM, Jeong YJ, Whang K. Effect of germinated brown rice extract powder on free amino acid content, antioxidant and nitrite scavenging ability of the Korean cabbage kimchi. Korean J. Food Preserv. 13: 548–554 (2006)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cho Y, Rhee HS. A study on flavorous taste components in kimch is on free amino acids. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 11: 26–31 (1979)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lee HH, Kim GH. Changes in the levels of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and free amino acids during kimchi fermentation. Korean J. Food Cook. Sci. 29: 671–677 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lee YK, Lee MY, Kim SD. Effect of monosodium glutamate and temperature change on the content of free amino acids in kimchi. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr. 33: 399–404 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Cho YJ, Im YS, Lee KW, Kim GB, Choi YJ. Quality characteristics of southeast Asian salt-fermented fish sauces. J. Korean Fish Soc. 33: 98–102 (2000)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology and Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.World Institute of KimchiGwangjuRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations