Food Science and Biotechnology

, Volume 27, Issue 4, pp 1015–1022 | Cite as

Effect of extraction methods on structural, physiochemical and functional properties of dietary fiber from defatted walnut flour

  • Gul Mali Khan
  • Nasir Mehmood KhanEmail author
  • Zia Ullah Khan
  • Farman Ali
  • Abdul Khaliq Jan
  • Nawshad Muhammad
  • Rizwan Elahi


The effect of different extraction methods i.e. extraction with alkali (AEDF), enzyme (EEDF) and enzyme plus shear emulsifying hydrolysis (SEDF) on structure, physiochemical as well as the functional characteristics of dietary fiber (DF) from defatted walnut flour were studied. AEDF process showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) amount of water retention capacity (WRC; 5.39 g/g), water swelling capacity (WSC; 3.16 g/mL), and particle size; while, shown lower value of oil adsorption capacity (OAC; 29 g/g) amongst all. Compared to AEDF, no major differences were observed in network except the matrix in EEDF and SEDF was more porous and honey comb like. DF extracted through AEDF, EEDF and SEDF showed good viscosity and emulsifying activity however, less stability indices. The results from this study suggest that AEDF and EEDF and SEDF had specific effects on the structure-functional properties of DF from defatted walnut flour, which has great potential in food applications.


Defatted walnut flour Dietary fiber Structural Physicochemical and functional properties Extraction methods Proximate composition 



The authors are thankful to Nuclear Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) Pesharwar, Pakistan for determination of proximate composition of samples. This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.


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Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology and Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryShaheed Benazir Bhutto UniversitySheringal, Dir UpperPakistan
  2. 2.Department of AgricultureAbdul Wali Khan UniversityMardanPakistan
  3. 3.Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Biomedical Materials (IRCBM)COMSATS Institute of Information TechnologyLahorePakistan
  4. 4.Institute of Food Science and TechnologyChinese Academy of Agricultural SciencesBeijingChina

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