Effect of alginate coating on the physico-chemical and microbial quality of pansies (Viola × wittrockiana) during storage

  • Luana Fernandes
  • Susana Casal
  • José A. Pereira
  • Ermelinda L. Pereira
  • Jorge A. Saraiva
  • Elsa Ramalhosa


Edible flowers, such as pansies, are becoming more popular, but they are highly perishable. So, postharvest technologies are needed, being edible coatings a good alternative. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of alginate coating on physico-chemical and microbiological quality of pansies during cold storage (4 °C for 0, 7, 14, 21 days). Coated pansies maintained good appearance until 14 days of storage, 7 days more than uncoated ones. Flavonoids, hydrolysable tannins and monomeric anthocyanins, as well antioxidant activity, were higher in coated pansies when compared to uncoated ones, on all assayed storage times. Furthermore, after 14 days of storage, uncoated pansies presented microorganism counts higher than coated, namely yeasts and moulds, suggesting an effective barrier protection of the alginate coating treatment. In summary, alginate coating has potential for extending shelf-life and improving physico-chemical and microbiological quality of pansies.


Viola × wittrockiana Alginate coating Antioxidant activity Bioactive compounds Microbial load 



The authors acknowledge the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT, Portugal) for the financial support provided by the research Grant SFRH/BD/95853/2013 and FCT/MEC for the financial support to QOPNA research Unit (FCT UID/QUI/00062/2013), through national funds and when applicable co-financed by the FEDER, within the PT2020 Partnership Agreement and REQUIMTE through the Project PEst/UID/QUI/50006/2013. The authors are also grateful to FCT (Portugal) and FEDER under Programme PT2020 for financial support to CIMO (UID/AGR/00690/2013).


  1. 1.
    Rop O, Mlcek J, Jurikova T, Neugebauerova J, Vabkova J. Edible flowers—A new promising source of mineral elements in human nutrition. Molecules, 17: 6672–6683. (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Vukics V, Kery A, Guttman A. Analysis of polar antioxidants in heartsease (Viola tricolor L.) and garden pansy (Viola × wittrockiana Gams.). J Chromatogr. Sci. 46: 823–827 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gamsjaeger S, Baranska M, Schulz H, Heiselmayer P, Musso M. Discrimination of carotenoid and flavonoid content in petals of pansy cultivars (Viola x wittrockiana) by FT-Raman spectroscopy. J. Raman Spectrosc. 42: 1240–1247 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lee JY, Park HJ, Lee CY, Choi WY. Extending shelf life of minimally processed apples with edible coatings and antibrowning agents. LWT - Food Sci. Technol. 36: 323–329 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Costa C, Conte A, Buonocore GG, Lavorgna M, Del Nobile MA. Calcium-alginate coating loaded with silver-montmorillonite nanoparticles to prolong the shelf-life of fresh-cut carrots. Food Res. Int. 48: 164–169 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tay SL, Perera CO. Effect of 1-Methylcyclopropene treatment and edible coatings on the quality of minimally processed lettuce. J. Food Sci. 69: 131–135 (2004).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lin D, Zhao Y. Innovations in the development and application of edible coatings for fresh and minimally processed fruits and vegetables. Comp. Rev. Food Sci. Food Safety 6:60–75 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fisher LG, Wong P. Jul 11.Method of forming an adherent coating on foods. U.S. patente 3,676,158 (1972).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Conca KR, Yang TCS Edible food barrier coatings. In: Ching C, Kaplan D, Thomas D, editors. Biodegradable polymers and packaging. Lancaster, Pa.: Technomic Publishing Co.,Inc. p 357–69 (1993).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Amanatidou A, Slump RA, Gorris LGM, Smid EJ. High oxygen and high carbon dioxide modified atmospheres for shelf life extension of minimally processed carrots. J. Food Sci. 65:61–66 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    AOAC. Official Method of Analysis of AOAC Intl. 16th ed. Official Method 940.26: Ash of Fruits and Fruit Products. Arlington, VA, USA, p.p. 7, (1999).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    AOAC. Official Method of Analysis of AOAC Intl. 17th ed. Official method 942.15 Acidity (Titratable) of fruit products with AOAC official method 920.Washington, (2000).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Aquino-Bolaños EN, Urrutia-Hernández T, Castillo-Lozano ML, Chavéz-Servia J, Verdalet-Guzmán I. Physicochemical parameters and antioxidant compounds in edible squash (Cucurbita Pepo) flower stored under controlled atmospheres. J. Food Qual. 36: 302–308 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Li A-N, Li S, Li H-B, Xu D-P, Xu X-R. Chen F. Total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities. J. Funct. Foods 6: 319–330 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bchir B, Besbes S, Karoui R, Attia H, Paquot M, Blecker C. Effect of air-drying conditions on physico-chemical properties of osmotically pre-treated pomegranate seeds. Food Bioprocess Tech. 5: 1840–1852 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rajasekar D, Akoh CC, Martino KG, MacLean DD. Physico-chemical characteristics of juice extracted by blender and mechanical press from pomegranate cultivars grown in Georgia. Food Chem. 133: 1383–1393(2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Viuda-Martos M, Ruiz-Navajas Y, Fernández-López J, Sendra E, Sayas-Barberá E, Pérez-Álvarez JA. Antioxidant properties of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) bagasses obtained as co-product in the juice extraction. Food Res. Int. 44: 1217–1223 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Elfalleh W, Hannachi H, Tlili N, Yahia Y. Nasri N, Ferchichi A. Total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of pomegranate peel, seed, leaf and flower. J. Med. Plants Res. 6: 4724–4730 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Falcão A, Chaves ES, Kuskoski EM, Fett R, Falcão LD, Bordignon- Luiz MT. Total polyphenol index, total anthocyanins and antioxidant activity of a model system of grape jelly. Ciênc. Tecnol. Aliment. 27: 637–642 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Delgado T, Malheiro R, Pereira JA, Ramalhosa E. Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) kernels as a source of antioxidants and their potential in relation to other nuts. Ind. Crops Prod. 32: 621–626 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hammer PE, Yang SF, Reid MS, Marois J. Postharvest control of Botrytis cinerea infections on cut roses using fungistatic storage atmospheres. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 115: 102–107 (1990).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Barbosa-Cánovas GV. Chapter 3 general considerations for preservation of fruits. pp. 39–40 In: Handling and preservation of fruits and vegetables by combined methods for rural areas. FAO (ed), Food & Agriculture Org. (2003).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Robertson GL. Food Packaging: Principles and Practice. Vol. 18. New York, CRC Press (2012).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    El-Anany AM, Hassan GF, Ali FM. Effects of edible coatings on the shelf-life and quality of Anna apple (Malus domestica Borkh) during cold storage. J. Food Technol. 7: 5–11 (2009).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Varasteh F, Arzani K, Barzegar M, Zamani Z. Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit storability improvement using pre-storage chitosan coating technique. J. Agr. Sci. Technol. 19: 389–400 (2017).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Boon CS, McClements DJ, Weiss J, Decker EA. Factors influencing the chemical stability of carotenoids in foods. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 50: 515–532 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Valero D, Díaz-Mula HM, Zapata PJ, Guillén F, Martínez-Romero D, Castillo S, Serrano M. Effects of alginate edible coating on preserving fruit quality in four plum cultivars during postharvest storage. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 77: 1–6 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gonzalez-Aguilar GA, Villa-Rodriguez JA, Ayala-Zavala JF, Yahia EM. Improvement of the antioxidant status of tropical fruits as a secondary response to some postharvest treatments. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 21: 475–482 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hager TJ, Howard LR, Prior RL. Processing and storage effects on monomeric anthocyanins, percent polymeric color, and antioxidant capacity of processed blackberry products. J. Agric. Food Chem. 56: 689–695 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Robles-Sánchez RM, Rojas-Graü MA, Odriozola-Serrano I, González-Aguilar G, Martin-Belloso O. Influence of alginate-based edible coating as carrier of antibrowning agents on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in fresh-cut Kent mangoes. Food Sci. Technol. 50: 240–246 (2013).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Rickman CJ, Barrett MD, Bruhn MC. Nutritional comparison of fresh frozen and canned fruits and vegetables Part 1. Vitamins C and B and phenolic compounds. J. Sci. Food Agric. 87: 930–944 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Turkmen N, Ferda S, Velioglu YS. The effect of cooking methods on total phenolics and antioxidant activity of selected green vegetables. Food Chem. 93: 713–718 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zhang D, Quantick PC Effects of chitosan coating on enzymatic browning and decay during postharvest storage of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruit. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 12: 195–202 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hussain PR, Dar MA, Wani AM. Effect of edible coating and gamma irradiation on inhibition of mould growth and quality retention of strawberry during refrigerated storage. Int. J. Food Sci. Techn. 47: 2318–2324 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Oroian M, Escriche I. Antioxidants: Characterization, natural sources, extraction and analysis. Food Res Int. 74: 10–36 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Reyes LF, Cisneros-Zevallos L. Wounding stress increases the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of purple-fesh potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.). J. Agric. Food Chem. 51, 5296–5300 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Frusciante L, Carli P, Ercolano MR, Pernice R, Matteo AD, Fogliano V, Pellegrini N. Antioxidant nutritional quality of tomato. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 51: 609–617 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Santos MI, Correia C, Cunha MI, Saraiva MM, Novais MR. Valores guia para avaliação da qualidade microbiológica de alimentos prontos a comer preparados em estabelecimentos de restauração. Revista Ordem Dos Farmacêuticos, 64: 66–68 (2005).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology and Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO)/School of AgriculturePolytechnic Institute of BragançaBragançaPortugal
  2. 2.LAQV@REQUIMTE/Laboratory of Bromatology and Hydrology, Faculty of PharmacyPorto UniversityPortoPortugal
  3. 3.Organic Chemistry, Natural Products and Agrifood (QOPNA) – Chemistry DepartmentUniversity of AveiroAveiroPortugal

Personalised recommendations