Food Science and Biotechnology

, Volume 27, Issue 2, pp 323–331 | Cite as

Bioactive, nutritional composition, heavy metal and pesticide residue of four Chinese jujube cultivars

  • Ebeydulla Rahman
  • Ali Momin
  • Liang Zhao
  • Xiaoxuan Guo
  • Duoyuan Xu
  • Feng Zhou
  • Baoping Ji


This study aims to conduct a detailed investigation on four cultivars grown in northwest China, concentrating on the analysis of the bioactive contents, nutrients, heavy metal concentrations, and pesticide residue contents. Those Chinese jujubes consist of 51.99–71.75% edible part, 82.35–89.63% carbohydrates, 4.43–6.01% protein, 0.48–0.63% lipid, 2.80–4.80% polysaccharide, 45.64–88.97 mg/100 g ascorbic acid, 132.16–196.58 mg/100 g phenolics and 101.17–132.04 mg/100 g flavonoids in dry matter. In those four Chinese jujube cultivars, sulfur amino acids are the first limiting amino acids for adults, and aromatic amino acids are for children. The amount of heavy metal and pesticide residue concentrations in those jujubes was way below the limit. All four cultivars were found to have different nutritional values except for the carbohydrates; they had higher rates of carbohydrates and polysaccharide than those previously reported ones from Eastern China; and they are a better source for carbohydrates, vitamin C and functional amino acids.


Chinese jujube Nutritional composition Bioactive content Heavy metals Pesticide residue 



Ziziphus jujube cv. Hupingzao


Ziziphus jujube cv. Huizao


Ziziphus jujube cv. Xiaozao


Ziziphus jujube cv. Junzao


Garlic acid equivalent


Total amino acids


Essential amino acids


Functional amino acids


Chinese national standard




Hexachlorocyclohexane isomers











We send our greatest appreciations to the Forestry Bureau of Minqin County (Gansu, China; Grant No.201505510610433) for their generous financial support and kind assistance in sampling. We also appreciate the valuable academic and technical support we received from Prof. Wangfu Bi, Xuan wang, Liyue Yue, Mamun-or-Rashid and other lab-mates. We give our special thanks to Pengshan Li and Hongzhang Li for their assistance in sampling and data collection, and to Dr. Pushparajah Thavarajah (from University of Saskatchewan, Canada) for his assistance in manuscript editing. We send our final appreciation to our beloved friend Mr. Edward Oyama (from the US) for final proofreading.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

There is not any conflict of interest with all authors.


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Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology and Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Beijing Key Laboratory of Functional Food From Plant Resources, College of Food Science and Nutritional EngineeringChina Agricultural UniversityBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of AnthropologyUniversity of KansasLawrenceUSA
  3. 3.Forestry Bureau of Minqin CountyWuweiPeople’s Republic of China

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