Skip to main content

Comparison of total antioxidant potential, and total phenolic, nitrate, sugar, and organic acid contents in beetroot juice, chips, powder, and cooked beetroot


Beetroot is a vegetable rich in nitrate (NO 3 ), antioxidants and phenolic compounds that are related to improvements in cardiovascular function and exercise performance. However, it is unknown if convenient forms of beetroot administration provide different amounts of these nutrients. The total antioxidant potential (TAP), total phenolic (TPC), sugar, organic acid, and NO 3 contents of beetroot juice (BJ), chips (BC), powder (BP), and cooked beetroot (CB) were compared. Significant (p<0.01) differences in chemical compositions and functional properties were found between beetroot formulations. Higher amounts of TAP and organic acids were observed in BC and BP, compared with the other formulations. BJ exhibited the highest contents of total sugars, TPC, and NO 3 . All beetroot formulations were suitable and advantageous based on taste preferences and convenience for consumers and for nutrient amounts required to meet dietary recommendations.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. 1.

    Liu RH. Health-promoting components of fruits and vegetables in the diet. Adv. Nutr. 4: 384–392 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Boeing H, Bechthold A, Bub A, Ellinger S, Haller D, Kroke A, Leschik-Bonnet E, Müller MJ, Oberritter H, Schulze M, Stehle P, Watzl B. Critical review: Vegetables and fruit in the prevention of chronic diseases. Eur. J. Nutr. 51: 637–663 (2012)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Hord NG, Tang Y, Bryan NS. Food sources of nitrates and nitrites: The physiologic context for potential health benefits. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 90: 1–10 (2009)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Lange W, Brandenburg WA, De bock TS. Taxonomy and cultonomy of beet (Beta vulgaris L.). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 130: 81–96 (1999)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    United State Department of Agriculture (USDA). National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. Available from: Acessed Aug. 10, 2013.

  6. 6.

    Koubaier HBH, Snoussi A, Essaidi I, Chaabouni MM, Thonart P, Bouzouita N. Betalain and phenolic compositions, antioxidant activity of tunisian red beet (Beta vulgaris L. conditiva) roots and stems extracts. Int. J. Food Prop. 17: 1934–1945 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Wootton-Beard PC, Ryan L. Combined use of multiple methodologies for the measurement of total antioxidant capacity in UK commercially available vegetable juices. Plant Food. Hum. Nutr. 67: 142–147 (2012)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Kujala TS, Loponen JM, Klika KD, Pihlaja K. Phenolics and betacyanins in red beetroot (Beta vulgaris) root: Distribution and effect of cold storage on the content of total phenolics and three individual compounds. J. Agr. Food Chem. 48: 5338–5342 (2000)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Georgiev VG, Weber J, Kneschke EM, Denev PN, Bley T, Pavlov AI. Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of betalain extracts from intact plants and hairy root cultures of the red beetroot Beta vulgaris cv. detroit dark red. Plant Food. Hum. Nutr. 65: 105–111 (2010)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Kapil V, Webb AJ, Ahluwalia A. Inorganic nitrate and the cardiovascular system. Hear. 96: 1703–1709 (2010)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Stokes KY, Dugas TR, Tang Y, Garg H, Guidry E, Bryan NS. Dietary nitrite prevents hypercholesterolemic microvascular inflammation and reverses endothelial dysfunction. Endocrinol. Metab. 296: 1281–1288 (2009)

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Murph M, Eliot K, Heuertz RM, Weiss E. Whole beetroot consumption acutely improves running performance. J. Acad. Nutr. Diet. 112: 548–552 (2012)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Vanhatalo A, Fulford J, Bailey SJ, Blackwell JR, Winyard PG, Jones AM. Dietary nitrate reduces muscle metabolic perturbation and improves exercise tolerance in hypoxia. J. Physiol.-Londo. 15: 5517–5528 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Glód BK, Piszcz P, Czajka K, Zarzycki PK. A New Total antioxidant potential measurements using rp-hplc assay with fluorescence detection. J. Chromatogr. Sci. 49: 401–404 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Wantusiak PM, Glód BK. Application of UV detection in HPLC in the total antioxidant potential assay. Cent. Eur. J. Chem. 10: 1786–1790 (2012)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Sánchez-Rangel JC, Benavides J, Heredia JB, Cisneros-Zevallos L, Jacobo-Velázquez DA. The Folin-Ciocalteu assay revisited improvement of its specificity for total phenolic content determination. Anal. Method. 5: 5990–5999 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Mohdaly AAA, Hassanien MFR, Mahmoud A, Sarhan MA, Smetanska I. Phenolics extracted from potato, sugar beet, and sesame processing byproducts. Int. J. Food Prop. 16: 1148–1168 (2013)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Alvares TS, Conte CA, Paschoalin VM, Silva JT, Meirelles CM, Bhambhani YN, Gomes PS. Acute L-arginine supplementation increases muscle blood volume but not strength performance. Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Me. 37: 115–126 (2012)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Hernández JL, González-Castro MJ, Alba NI, García CC. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of mono-and oligosaccharides in vegetables with evaporative light-scattering detection and refractive index detection. J. Chromatogr. Sci. 36: 293–298 (1998)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Bavec M, Turinek M, Grobelnik-MLakar S, Slatnar A, Bavec F. Influence of industrial and alternative farming systems on contents of sugars, organic acids, total phenolic content, and the antioxidant activity of red beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris Rote Kugel). J. Agr. Food Chem. 58: 11825–11831 (2010)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Sun Q, Han Z, Wang L, Xiong L. Physicochemical differences between sorghum starch and sorghum flour modified by heat-moisture treatment. Food Chem. 145: 756–764 (2014)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Ratti C. Hot air and freeze-drying of high-value foods: A review. J. Food Eng. 49: 311–319 (2001)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Ravichandran K, Saw NMMT, Mohdaly AAA, Gabr MMA, Kastell A, Riedel H, Cai Z, Knorr D, Smetanska I. Impact of processing of red beet on betalain content and antioxidant activity. Food Res. Int. 50: 670–675 (2013)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Attoe EL, von Elbe JH. Degradation kinetics of betanine in solutions as influenced by oxygen. J. Agr. Food Chem. 30: 708–712 (1982)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Herbach KM, Stintzing FC, Carle R. Betalain stability and degradation-Structural and chromatic aspects. J. Sci. Food Agr. 71: R41–R50 (2006)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Figiel A. Drying kinetics and quality of beetroots dehydrated by combination of convective and vacuum-microwave methods. J. Food Eng. 98: 461–470 (2010)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Jiménez-Monreal AM, García-Diz L, Martínez-Tomé M, Mariscal M, Murcia MA. Influence of cooking methods on antioxidant activity of vegetables. J. Food Sci. 74: H97–H103 (2009)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Chun OK, Kim D-O, Smith N, Schroeder D, Han JT, Lee CY. Daily consumption of phenolics and total antioxidant capacity from fruit and vegetables in the American diet. J. Sci. Food Agr. 85: 1715–1724 (2005)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Raczuk J, Wadas W, Glozak K. Nitrates and nitrites in selected vegetables purchased at supermarkets in Siedlce, Poland. Rocz. Panstw. Zakl. Hig. 65: 15–20 (2014)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Tsikas D, Fuchs I, Gutzki FM, Frölich JC. Measurement of nitrite and nitrate in plasma, serum and urine of humans by high-performance liquid chromatography, the Griess assay, chemiluminescence and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: Interferences by biogenic amines and N(G)-nitro-L-arginine analogs. J. Chromatogr. 715: 441–444 (1998)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Clements WT, Lee SR, Bloomer RJ. Nitrate ingestion: A review of the health and physical performance effects. Nutrient. 6: 5224–5264 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Bach V, Mikkelsen L, Kidmose U, Edelenbos M. Culinary preparation of beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.): The impact on sensory quality and appropriateness. J. Sci. Food Agr. 95: 1852–1859 (2015)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Rodríguez-Sevilla MD, Villanueva-Suárez MJ, Redondo-Cuenca A. Effects of processing conditions on soluble sugars content of carrot, beetroot and turnip. Food Chem. 66: 81–85 (1999)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    American Dietetic Association; Dietitians of Canada; American College of Sports Medicine, Rodriguez NR, Di Marco NM, Langley S. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Nutrition and athletic performance. Med. Sci. Sport. Exer. 41: 709–731 (2009)

  35. 35.

    Santos PHS, Silva MA. Retention of vitamin c in drying processes of fruits and vegetables-A review. Dry Technol. 26: 1421–1437 (2008)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Pierucci AP, Andrade LR, Baptista EB, Volpato NM, Rocha-Leão MH. New microencapsulation system for ascorbic acid using pea protein concentrate as coat protector. J. Microencapsul. 23: 654–662 (2006)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Jiratanan T, Liu RH. Antioxidant activity of processed table beets (Beta vulgaris var, conditiva) and green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). J. Agr. Food Chem. 52: 2659–2670 (2004)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Institute of Medicine (US) Subcommittee on Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes, Institute of Medicine (US) Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. DRI Dietary Reference Intakes: Applications in Dietary Assessment. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US) (2000)

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Thiago Silveira Alvares.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Vasconcellos, J., Conte-Junior, C., Silva, D. et al. Comparison of total antioxidant potential, and total phenolic, nitrate, sugar, and organic acid contents in beetroot juice, chips, powder, and cooked beetroot. Food Sci Biotechnol 25, 79–84 (2016).

Download citation


  • vegetable
  • antioxidant
  • beetroot
  • drying method