Food Science and Biotechnology

, Volume 24, Issue 1, pp 233–240 | Cite as

Beneficial effect of persimmon leaves and bioactive compounds on thrombosis

  • Ri Ryu
  • Un Ju Jung
  • Yu-Ri Seo
  • Hye-Jin Kim
  • Byoung Seok Moon
  • Jong-Sup Bae
  • Dong Gun Lee
  • Myung-Sook Choi
Research Article


The effects of ethanol extracts of persimmon leaves (EPL) and the major flavonoids catechin, epicatechin, and epicatechin gallate on blood coagulation and platelet aggregation were evaluated. Anticoagulant activities were examined by monitoring the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and the prothrombin time (PT). EPL significantly prolonged PT and aPTT. The aPTT was significantly increased in the presence of catechin, epicatechin, and epicatechin gallate, compared with controls. In order to determine the antiplatelet activity, arachidonic acid (AA), collagen, and adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation were examined. PL and the major flavonoids significantly reduced AA-induced platelet aggregation, although they did not significantly affect ADP and collagen-induced platelet aggregation, compared with controls. EPL and the major flavonoids significantly inhibited serotonin, thromboxane A2, and soluble P-selectin generation, compared with controls. PL has potential for prevention and improvement of thrombosis by inhibiting blood coagulation and platelet activation.


persimmon leaf anticoagulation antiplatelet 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Furie B, Furie BC. Mechanisms of thrombus formation. New Engl. J. Med. 359: 938–949 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Furie B, Furie BC. Thrombus formation in vivo. J. Clin. Invest. 115: 3355–3362 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gopinath SCB, Shikamoto Y, Mizuno H, Kumar PK. A potent anti-coagulant RNA aptamer inhibits blood coagulation by specifically blocking the extrinsic clotting pathway. Thromb. Haemostasis 95: 767–771 (2006)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gopinath SCB, Shikamoto Y, Mizuno H, Kumar PK. Snake-venom-derived Factor IX-binding protein specifically blocks the gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-rich-domain-mediated membrane binding of human Factors IX and X. Biochem. J. 405: 351–357 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Charles TE. The interactions between inflammation and coagulation. Brit. J. Haematol. 131: 417–430 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kim SY, Koo YK, Koo JY, Ngoc TM, Kang SS, Bae K, Kim YS, Choi HSY. Platelet anti-aggregation activities of compound from Cinnamomum cassia. J. Med. Food 13: 1069–1074 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yu HY, Park SW, Chung IM, Jung YS. Anti-platelet effects of yuzu extract and its component. Food Chem. Toxicol. 49: 3018–3024 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jennings LK. Mechanisms of platelet activation: Need for new strategies to protect against platelet-mediated atherothrombosis. Thromb. Haemostasis 102: 248–257 (2009)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cho HJ, Kittaka R, Abdou AM, Kim M, Kim HS, Lee DH, Park HJ. Inhibitory effects of oligopeptides from hen egg white on both human platelet aggregation and blood coagulation. Arch. Pharm. Res. 32: 945–953 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Konkle BA. Bleeding and thrombosis. 17th ed. pp. 369–369. In: Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. Fauci AS, Braunwald E, Kasper DL. Hauser SL, Longo DL, Jameson JL, Loscalzo J (eds). McGraw Hill, New York, NY, USA (2008)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Badimon JJ, Weng D, Chesebro JH, Fuster V, Badimon L. Platelet deposition induced by severely damaged vessel wall is inhibited by a boroarginine synthetic peptide with antithrombin activity. Thromb. Haemostasis 71: 511–516 (1994)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kang WS, Lim IH, Yuk DY, Chung KH, Park JB, Yoo HS, Yun YP. Antithrombotic activities of green tea catechins and (−)-epigallocatechin gallate. Thromb. Res. 96: 229–237 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Burger PC, Wagner DD. Platelet P-selectin facilitates atherosclerotic lesion development. Blood 101: 2661–2666 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fan J, Zhang Y, Chang X, Zhang B, Jiang D, Saito M, Li Z. Antithrombotic and fibrinolytic acitivities of methanolic extract of aged sorghum vinegar. J. Agr. Food Chem. 57: 8683–8687 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gopinath SCB. Anti-coagulant aptamers. Thromb. Res. 122: 838–847 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tanaka KA, Key NS, Levy JH. Blood coagulation: Hemostasis and thrombin regulation. Anesth. Analg. 108: 1433–1446 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hu FB. Plant-based foods and prevention of cardiovascular disease: An overview. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 78: 544S–551S (2003)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kim KY, Lim KM, Kim CW, Shin HY, Seo DB, Lee SJ, Noh JY, Bae ON, Sin S, Chung JH. Black soybean extract can attenuate thrombosis through inhibition of collagen-induced platelet activation. J. Nutr. Biochem. 22: 964–970 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jung UJ, Park YB, Kim SR, Choi MS. Supplementation of persimmon leaf ameliorates hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and hepatic fat accumulation in type 2 diabetic mice. PloS One 11: e49030 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Morel I, Lescoat G, Cogrel P, Sergent O, Pasdeloup N, Brissot P, Cillard P, Cillard J. Antioxidant and iron-chelating activities of the flavonoids catechin, quercetin and diosmetin on iron-loaded rat hepatocyte cultures. Biochem. Pharmacol. 45: 13–19 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sa YS, Kim SJ, Choi HS. The anticoagulant fraction from the leaves of Diospyros kaki L. has an antithrombotic activity. Arch. Pharm. Res. 28: 667–674 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Miao M, Zhang X, Wang L. Persimmon leaf flavonoid induces brain ischemic tolerance in mice. Neural. Regen. Res. 8: 1376–1382 (2013)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dejana E, Quintana A, Callioni A, de Gaetano G. Bleeding time in laboratory animals. III-Do tail bleeding times in rats only measure a platelet defect? (the aspirin puzzle). Thromb. Res. 15: 199–207 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Born GVR. Aggregation of blood platelets by adenosine diphosphate and its reversal. Nature 194: 927–929 (1962)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    World Health Organization. The top 10 causes of death. Available from: Accessed May 31, 2013.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Barrett NE, Holbrook L, Jones S, Kaiser WJ, Moraes LA, Rana R, Sage T, Stanley RG, Tucker KL, Wright B, Gibbins JM. Future innovations in anti-platelet therapies. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 154: 918–939 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lee SM, Moon J, Chung JH, Cha YJ, Shin MJ. Effect of quercetin-rich onion peel extracts on arterial thrombosis in rats. Food. Chem. Toxicol. 57: 99–105 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Heemskerk JWM, Bevers EM, Lindhout T. Platelet acitivation and blood coagulation. Thromb. Haemostasis 88: 196–193 (2002)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gratacap MP, Hérault JP, Viala C, Ragab A, Savi P, Herbert JM, Chap H, Plantavid M, Payrastre B. FcγRIIA requires a Gi-dependent pathway for an efficient stimulation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase, calcium mobilization, and platelet aggregation. Blood 96: 3439–3446 (2000)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lee W, Yang EJ, Ku SK, Song KS, Bae JS. Anticoagulant activities of oleanolic acid via inhibition of tissue factor expressions. BMB Rep. 45: 390–395 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Whiteheart SW. Platelet granules: Surprise packages. Blood 118: 1190–1191 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Clutton P, Folts JD, Freedman JE. Pharmacological control of platelet function. Pharmacol. Res. 44: 255–264 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Halushka PV, Allan CJ, Davis-Bruno KL. Thromboxane A2 receptors. J. Lipid Mediat. Cell 12: 361–378 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Son DJ, Cho MR, Jin YR, Kim SY, Park YH, Lee SH, Akiba S, Sato T, Yun YP. Antiplatelet effect of green tea catechins: A possible mechanism through arachidonic acid pathway. Prostag. Leukotr. Ess. 71: 25–31 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Jin YR, Im JH, Park ES, Cho MR, Han XH, Lee JJ, Lim Y, Kim TJ, Yun YP. Antiplatelet activity of epigallocatechin gallate is mediated by the inhibition of PLCgamma2 phosphorylation, elevation of PGD2 production, and maintaining calcium-ATPase activity. J. Cardiovasc. Pharm. 51: 45–54 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ri Ryu
    • 1
  • Un Ju Jung
    • 2
  • Yu-Ri Seo
    • 1
  • Hye-Jin Kim
    • 3
  • Byoung Seok Moon
    • 3
  • Jong-Sup Bae
    • 4
  • Dong Gun Lee
    • 5
  • Myung-Sook Choi
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Food Science and NutritionKyungpook National UniversityDaeguKorea
  2. 2.Center for Food and Nutritional Genomics ResearchKyungpook National UniversityDaeguKorea
  3. 3.Foods R&DCJ Cheil Jedang CorporationSeoulKorea
  4. 4.College of Pharmacy, CMRI, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical SciencesKyungpook National UniversityDaeguKorea
  5. 5.School of Life Sciences, College of Natural SciencesKyungpook National UniversityDaeguKorea

Personalised recommendations