Food Science and Biotechnology

, Volume 23, Issue 1, pp 239–245 | Cite as

Development of an oral immunoadjuvant from cheonggukjang that is efficacious for both mucosal and systemic immunity

  • Inkyu Hwang
  • Daewoon Choi
  • Hyejeong See
  • Seong-Il Lim
  • Wonyong Kim
  • In Sik Chung
  • Dong-Hwa Shon
Research Article


Immunological properties of a 50% ethanol/aqueous extract of cheonggukjang (CGJ), a fermented soybean product, were investigated as a potent, orallyavailable, and cost-effective immunoadjuvant. Different from cholera toxin, a widely used experimental oral adjuvant with effects limited to mucosal immunity in the gut, oraladministration of the CGJ extract had positive effects on both mucosal and systemic immunity. Administration of keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) with the CGJ extract resulted in hyper-production of KLH-specific IgA in the gut and KLH-specific IgG in the serum. Oral-administration of the CGJ extract resulted in promotion of both Th1 and Th2 immune responses, thus eliminating concerns over an imbalanced Th1 and Th2 immune bias that is often observed upon administration of other commonly used immunoadjuvants. Ethanol/aqueous extraction of CGJ resulted in enrichment of polyphenolic compounds, including flavonoids, providing a potential extra health benefit.


cheonggukjang oral vaccine mucosal immunity adjuvant fermented food 


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Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Inkyu Hwang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Daewoon Choi
    • 1
  • Hyejeong See
    • 1
  • Seong-Il Lim
    • 1
  • Wonyong Kim
    • 3
  • In Sik Chung
    • 4
  • Dong-Hwa Shon
    • 1
  1. 1.Korea Food Research InstituteGyeonggiKorea
  2. 2.College of PharmacyChungnam National UniversityDaejeonKorea
  3. 3.Department of Microbiology, College of MedicineChuang-Ang UniversitySeoulKorea
  4. 4.Department of Genetic Engineering and Graduate School of BiotechnologyKyung-Hee UniversityGyeonggiKorea

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