Hypocholesterimic effects of cold and hot extracted virgin coconut oil (VCO) in comparison to commercial coconut oil: Evidence from a male wistar albino rat model

Abstract

The hypolipidemic effect of cold extracted virgin coconut oil (CEVCO) and hot extracted virgin coconut oil (HEVCO) compared to commercially available coconut oil (CCO) was studied using male wistar rats. Groups were designated as control, hypercholesterimic control (HC Control), HC+10% (CEVCO), HC+15% (CEVCO), HC+10% (HEVCO), HC+15% (HEVCO) and HC+15% (CCO). Control rats were fed a basal diet while other groups were initially fed a hypercholesterimic diet (2% cholesterol and 0.25% bile salts) for 15 days, then fed with CEVCO or HEVCO (both at 10% and 15% levels), and commercial coconut oil (15%) for 30 days. Total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels were significantly (p<0.05) decreased by approximately 25 and 40%, respectively, in the blood plasma, while HDL cholesterol increased significantly (p<0.05) by approximately 21% in HEVCO fed rats. Tissue cholesterol and triacylycerol (TAG) levels in both liver and heart tissues decreased significantly (p<0.05) in CEVCO and HEVCO fed animals, compared with CCO fed rats.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. 1.

    Keys A. Seven Countries a Multivariate Analysis of Death and CHD, Havard University Press, Cambridge, MA, USA. pp. 55–60 (1980)

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Oluba OM, Eidangbe GO, Godwin CO, Blessing OI. Palm and Egusi melon oils lower serum and liver lipid profile and improve antioxidant activity in rats fed a high fat diet. Int. J. Med. Sci. 3: 47–51 (2011)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Erdincler DS, Seven A, Inci F, Beger T, Candan G. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in experimental animals: Effects of aging and hypercholesterolemic diet. Clin. Chim. Acta 265: 77–84 (1997)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Warnholtz A, Hanke M, Mathias O, Maria W, Thomas M. Antioxidants and endothelial dysfunction in hyperlipidemia. Curr. Hypert. Rep. 3: 53–60 (2001)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Villarino BJ, Dy LM, Lizada CC. Descriptive sensory evaluation of virgin coconut oil and refined bleached and deodorized coconut oil. LWT-Food Sci. Tech. 40: 193–199 (2007)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Songkro S, Sirikatitham A, Sungkarak S, Buaking K, Wungsintaweekul J, Maneenuan D, Oungbho K. Characterization of aromatherapy massage oils prepared from virgin coconut oil and some essential oils. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 87: 93–107 (2010)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Seneviratne KN, Dissanayake MS. Variation of phenollic content in coconut oil extracted by two conventional methods. Int. J. Food Sci. Tech. 43: 597–602 (2008)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Nevin KG, Rajamohan T. Virgin coconut oil supplemented diet increases the antioxidant status in rats. Food Chem. 99: 260–266 (2006)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Anitha N, Lokesh BR. Lipase modified blended oils are more efficient in reducing cholesterol in rats compared to the blended oils. Nutr. Res. 27: 580–586 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Sabir SM, Hayat IH, Gardezi SDA. Estimation of sterols in edible fats and oils. Pak. J. Nutri. 2: 178–181 (2003)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Singleton VL, Orthofer R, Lamuela-Raventos RM. Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Meth. Enzym. 299: 152–178 (1999)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Umbare RP, Mate GS, Jawalkar DV, Patil SM, Dongare SS. Quality evaluation of Phyllanthus amarus (Schumach) leaves extract for its hypolipidemic activity. Biol. Med. 1: 28–33 (2009)

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Balogun EA, Adebayo JO. Effect of ethanolic extract of Daniella Oliveri leaves on some cardiovascular indices in rats. Pharma. Mag. 3: 16–20 (2007)

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Girotti AW, Thomas LP. Damage effects of oxygen radicals on resealed erythrocyte ghosts. J. Bio. Chem. 259: 1744–1732 (1984)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Bradbury JM. Rapid biochemical tests for characterization of the Mycoplasmatales. J. Clin. Micro. 5: 531–534 (1977)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Onyeneke EC, Adebisi KE, Eriyamremu GE, Ojeaburu SI, Asagba SO, Oluba OM. Effect of lipid-based diet on some lipidmetabolizing enzymes. J. Med. Sci. 7: 1283–1289 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Oluba OM, Adeyemi O, Ojieh GC, Adebisi KE, Isiosio IO, Aboluwoye CO. Effect of dietary cholesterol on some serum enzymes. J. Med. Sci. 8: 390–394 (2008)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Nevin KG, Rajamohan T. Beneficial effects of virgin coconut oil on lipid parameters and in vitro IDL oxidation. Clin. Biochem. 37: 830–835 (2004)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Marina AM, Cheman YB, Nazimah SAH, Amin I. Antioxidant capacity and phenollic acids of virgin coconut oil. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutri. 60: 114–123 (2009)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Seneviratne KNCD, Hapuarachch I, Sagarika E. Comparison of the phenolic-dependent antioxidant properties of coconut oil extracted under cold and hot conditions. Food Chem. 114: 1444–1449 (2009)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Ostlund RE. Phytosterols in human nutrition. Ann. Rev. Nutri. 22: 533–549 (2002)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Howell WH, Namara DJ, Tosca MA, Smith BT, Gaines JA. Plasma lipid and lipoprotein responses to dietary fat and cholesterol meta analysis. Am. J. Clin. Nutri. 65: 1747–1764 (1997)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Covas MI, Fito M, Lamuels R, Sebastia N, Dela TBC, Marrugat RM. Virgin olive oil phenolic compounds: binding to human low density lipoproteins (LDL) and effect on LDL oxidation. Int. J. Clin. Pharma. Res. 341: 49–54 (2000)

    Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Hostmark AT, Spydevold O, Eilertsen E. Plasma lipid concentration and liver output of lipoproteins in rats fed coconut fat or sunflower oil. Artery 7: 367–383 (1980)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Ghosh DK, Ghosh A, Manojkumar C, Samsudeen K. A simpler approach to understand coronary heart disease, fat facts and its correlation with consumption of coconut oil. Ind. Coco. J. 10: 5–19 (2009)

    Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Abudu N, Miller JJ, Levinson SS. Vitamins in human arteriosclerosis with emphasis on vitamin C and vitamin E. Clin. Chemi. Acta 339: 11–25 (2004)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Muntean A, Zing JM, Azzi A. Anti-artherosclerotic effects of vitamin E myth or reality. J. Cell. Mol. Med. 8: 59–76 (2004)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Manorama R, Rukmini C. Nutritional evaluation of crude palm oil in rats. Am. J. Clin. Nutri. 53: 1031S–1033S (1991)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Yashi Srivastava.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Srivastava, Y., Semwal, A.D. & Swamy, M.S.L. Hypocholesterimic effects of cold and hot extracted virgin coconut oil (VCO) in comparison to commercial coconut oil: Evidence from a male wistar albino rat model. Food Sci Biotechnol 22, 1501–1508 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10068-013-0244-0

Download citation

Keywords

  • virgin coconut oil
  • low density lipoprotein (LDL)
  • high density lipoprotein (HDL)
  • total cholesterol (TC)
  • triacylycerol (TAG)