Effects of fat and sucrose in palate cleansers on discrimination of burning sensation of capsaicin samples


Repeated tasting of spicy foods could affect the accuracy of sensory evaluation because of the accumulating and lasting of burning sensation. Therefore, protocols are needed to overcome this problem. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 6 milk based palate cleansers varying in fat and sucrose level on discrimination of burning sensation of capsaicin samples prepared at different concentrations. The effects were observed at 3 different interval lengths (1, 3, and 5 min) using different subjects. Subjects rated the intensity of burning sensation of the samples using 15-point category scales and they completed 7 sessions including 1 warm up session, using a different palate cleanser in each session. At 3 min interval, fat seemed to be more effective than sucrose, and the effects of fat was still more increased with the addition of sucrose. However, consistent trends were not observed at 1 and 5 min intervals.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. 1.

    Caterina MJ, Schumacher MA, Tominaga M, Rosen TA, Levine JD, Julius D. The capsaicin receptor: A heat-activated ion channel in the pain pathway. Nature 389: 816–824 (1997)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Bryant BP, Moore PA. Factors affecting sensitivity of the lingual trigeminal nerve to acids. Am. J. Physiol. 168: R58–R65 (1995)

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Liu L, Welch JM, Erickson RP, Reinhart PH, Simon SA. Different responses to repeated applications of zingerone in behavioral studies, recording from intact and cultured TG neurons, and from VR1 receptors. Physiol. Behav. 69: 177–186 (2000)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Prescott J. The generalizability of capsaicin sensitization and desensitization. Physiol. Behav. 66: 741–749 (1999)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Sloan AE. Top 10 food trends. Food Technol. -Chicago 65: 27–41 (2011)

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Johnson EA, Vickers Z. The effectiveness of palate cleansing strategies for evaluating the bitterness of caffeine in cream cheese. Food Qual. Prefer. 15: 311–316 (2004)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Delwiche JF, O’Mahony M. Changes in secreted salivary sodium are sufficient to alter salt taste sensitivity: Use of signal detection measures with continuous monitoring of the oral environment. Physiol. Behav. 59: 605–611 (1996)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Lucak CL, Delwiche JF. Efficacy of various palate cleansers with representative foods. Chem. Percept. 2: 32–39 (2009)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Stevens DA, Lawless HT. Putting out the fire: Effects of tastants on oral chemical irritation. Percept. Psychophys. 39: 346–350 (1986)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Sizer F, Harris N. The influence of common food additives and temperature on threshold perception of capsaicin. Chem. Sens. 10: 279–286 (1985)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Anseloni V, Weng H, Terayama R, Letizia D, Davis B, Ren K, Dubner R, Ennis M. Age-dependency of analgesia elicited by intraoral sucrose in acute and persistent pain models. Pain 97: 93–103 (2002)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Shide D, Blass E. Opioidlike effects of intraoral infusions of corn oil and polycose on stress reactions in 10-day-old rats. Behav. Neurosci. 103: 1168–1175 (1989)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Lewkowski MD, Young SN, Ghosh S, Ditto B. Effects of opioid blockade on the modulation of pain and mood by sweet taste and blood pressure in young adults. Pain 135: 75–81 (2008)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Baron RF, Panfield MP. Capsaicin heat intensity-concentration, carrier, fat level, and serving temperature effects. J. Sens. Stud. 11: 295–316 (1996)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Hutchinson SE, Trantow LA, Vickers ZM. The effectiveness of common foods for reduction of capsaicin burn. J. Sens. Stud. 4: 157–164 (1990)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Nasrawi CW, Pangborn RM. Temporal effectiveness of mouthrinsing on capsaicin mouth-burn. Physiol. Behav. 47: 617–623 (1990)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Lawless HT. Oral chemical irritation: Psychophysical properties. Chem. Sens. 9: 143–155 (1984)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Dowell KJ, Chambers E, Milliken GA, Chambers DH. Predicting interstimulus intervals between samples for capsaicin-containing salsa with a range of heat levels. J. Sens. Stud. 20: 187–199 (2005)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    ASTM. Standard test method for sensory evaluation of red pepper heat. Designation E1083-00. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA, USA (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Johnson EA, Vickers Z. The effectiveness of palate cleansing strategies for evaluating the bitterness of caffeine in cream cheese. Food Qual. Prefer. 15: 311–316 (2004)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Vickers Z, Morris EE, Savaria M. Effectiveness of palate cleansers for evaluating sourness. J. Sens. Stud. 23: 526–532 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Carden LA, Penfield MP, Saxton AM. Perception of heat in cheese sauces as affected by capsaicin concentration, fat level, fat mimetic, and time. J. Food Sci. 64: 175–179 (1999)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Steiner JE, Glaser D, Hawilo ME, Berridge KC. Comparative expression of hedonic impact: Affective reactions to taste by human infants and other primates. Neurosci. Biobehav. R. 25: 53–74 (2001)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Blass EM, Shah A. Pain-reducing properties of sucrose in human newborns. Chem. Sens. 20: 29–35 (1995)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Lewkowski MD, Ditto B, Roussos M, Young SN. Sweet taste and blood pressure-related analgesia. Pain 106: 181–186 (2003)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Allison AA, Chambers E, Milliken GA, Chambers DH. Effects of interstimulus rinsing and time on measurements of capsaicin heat in tomato salsa. J. Sens. Stud. 14: 401–414 (1999)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Avancini TCA, Cubero E, O’Mahony M. Same different discriminations test with interstimulus delays up to one day. J. Sens. Stud. 14: 1–18 (1999)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Kim KO, Ennis DM, O’Mahony M. A new approach to category scales of intensity: Use of d’ values. J. Sens. Stud. 13: 251–267 (1998)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Cain WS. Odor identification by male and females: Predictions vs. performance. Chem. Sens. 7: 129–142 (1982)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Engen T. Remembering odors and their names. Am. Sci. 75: 497–503 (1987)

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Kwang-Ok Kim.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Lee, K., Kim, K. Effects of fat and sucrose in palate cleansers on discrimination of burning sensation of capsaicin samples. Food Sci Biotechnol 22, 691–696 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10068-013-0133-6

Download citation


  • palate cleanser
  • interval length
  • capsaicin
  • burning sensation